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憲問 第十四篇  

2011-08-10 12:51:47|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯憲問 第十四篇 共四十六章

憲問 第十四篇 共四十六章

 

14.1 問恥.子曰:邦有道,;邦無道,.恥也; …,,,欲不行焉,可以為仁矣?…:可以為難矣! 仁則吾不知也.

本章論恥之道,評克伐怨欲猶不及於仁.本章依朱子分為兩章,何晏集解合為一章,疑亦為所問所記.合一章較為有理.

問什麼是可恥之事.老師說:當國有道時,只知食祿而無建樹,當國無道時, 只知食祿而不能獨善其身,都是可恥的事; …又問:好勝,自誇,怨恨,貪欲都能克制着不行,可算是仁嗎? …老師說:可說是很難了,若說仁,那我就不知了.

:祿也; :好勝; :自誇; :怨恨; :貪欲;

:,字思.孔子弟子細孔子36,.隱而不仕.孔子為魯司寇,原思為家宰.原憲:無財者謂之貧,學道而不能行者謂之病,若憲,貧也,非病也.

Xian asked how to define ‘disgrace’

Confucius said:When a state advocates the path of  The Righteous Way ,provide your service and accept its offer.When a state is rascal-like, to provide your service and accept its offeris a disgrace.

“to restrain: the fond of dominating,boasting,resentment and desirousness,can that be called the highest moral standard?”

Confucius said:That maybe called formidable to achieve.Whether it is the highest moral standard, I do not know.

14.2 :士而懷居,不足以為士矣!

本章言士當修身用世,不當懷居處之安.

老師說:一個士若繫戀於安居享樂,就不配做個士了.

懷居:繫戀安居躭於安樂也;

Confucius said:Aso called  genuine scholar who is  fond of  pursuing comfort can not be genuine at all.

14.3:邦有道,危言危行,邦無道,危行言孫.

本章言人處於有道時與無道時之不同.

老師說:國家有道時,嚴正其言行,國家無道時,嚴正其行,出言謙遜.

:嚴正高峻,正直; :謙遜;

Confucius said:When the moral standard of a state is high,proclaim moral rectitude loudly and act righteously.When the moral standard of a state is appalling,act righteously and speak modestly.

14.4:有德者必有,者不必有德.仁者必有勇,勇者不必有仁.

本章明德與言,仁與勇的體會.

老師說:有德之人的言論都有道理,有道理言論的人不一定有道德的.仁人必定勇敢,勇敢的人不一定有仁德的.

Confucius said: A person of virture is surely eloquent. An eloquent person might not be a person of virtue. A benevolent person is surely brave. A brave person might not be benevolent.

14.5南宮适問於孔子:羿善射,盪舟,俱不得其死然. 躬稼而有天下; …夫子不答.南宮适,子曰:君子哉若人.尚德哉若人.

本章言恃強力能滅他國,卻不得保其身.有大功德於人者則有天下.孔子南容.

南宮适問於孔子:羿精於射箭,力大能覆舟,都不得好死,治水,后稷教民稼穡,而有天下; 老師沒有接話.南宮适退出之後,老師說:稱得上君子的,是這人啊! 崇尚道德的,是這人啊!

南宮适:同括,南容,,子容.孔子弟子.孔子兄之壻也,參閱11.4; 羿:yi羿粵讀魏,本章說的是窮氏族的酋長,善於射箭,相之位而自立,後為寒淀(dian粵讀殿,本字意淺水的湖泊)所殺; :同傲,ao粤讀傲,寒淀之子,力大能覆戰船滅敵.自己亦不得善終,夏后少康所誅; :大禹治水有功,得天下; :后稷教民稼穡,其後至周武王而有天下;

Nangong Kuo spoke with the master:Yi was good at archery.Ao could tumble a boat,But they both died the hard way.Yu and Ji personally toiled their own crops and won the hearts of the whole world.confucius did not respond him. Nangong Kuo left,Confucius commented:What a man of virtue indeed! So well does he merit virtue.

14.6 :君子而不仁者有矣夫! 未有小人而仁者也!

本章言行仁之難也.

老師說:君子有時也會違仁呢! 從沒見過小人會行仁之道啊!

Confucius said:There are people who are virtuous but sometimes not benevolent. However,we can not find people that are not benevolent but can be virtuous some of a time.

14.7:愛之能勿勞乎? 忠焉能勿誨乎?

本章言愛人以德,忠於人以勸,不可姑息.

老師說:愛他,能不使他勤勉於事嗎?忠於他,能不諫勸教誨於他嗎?

Confucius said:Should you care for someone, would you not encourage that person to be diligent? Should you be faithfully sincere to someone, would you not teach that person with the utmost effort?

14.8 :為命:裨諶草創之,世叔討論之,行人子羽修飾之,東里子產潤色之.

本章述鄭國所作外交之辭命,鄭重其事也.

老師說:鄭國造作外交上的辭令,由先裨諶起芻稿,世叔討論審議,由行人之官子羽修飾字句,最後再經東里子產加上辭藻的文采.

為命:外交上所用之辭命; 裨諶,世叔,子羽,子產:鄭國大夫; 行人:為出使之東里:地名子產之居地; 潤色:加以文采;

Confucius said:As a matter of legislating a decree,Bi Chen firstly made a draught,Shishu debated it,Foreign affair Ziyu phrased it with politicalization,Zicheng of Dongli would give it a final polish.

14.9 或問子產,:惠人也. 子西.:彼哉?彼哉? 管仲,:人也,伯氏 騈邑三百,飯疏食,沒齒無怨言.

本章評子產,子西,管仲三人之為人.

有人問子產是怎樣一個人,老師說:他是一位能施惠給民的人; …又問子西.老師說:他麼,他麼…(鄙視之義);…又問管仲,老師說:不外乎是個人吧,削奪了伯氏騈邑三百戶,伯氏喫粗飯粗菜,一直至死,毫無怨言.

表楚大夫公子申,字西(*非本章之字西)孔子,明朝<<石刻聖跡圖:子西阻封>>:楚昭王打算把書社之地封給孔子.宰相子西勸諫說:“國君的使節有像子貢的嗎?輔相有像顏淵的嗎?將帥有像子路的嗎?官員有像宰予的嗎?孔子得到封地以此為根据地,又有賢能的弟子輔佐,這不是國的福分啊!”.楚昭王就取消了封地給孔子的念頭.孔子毋奈又從國回到.

惠人:心存惠愛於人民; 子西:春秋時有三個子西.,它申謀亂被殺,,大夫公子申,孔子,,子西,(本章指的)子產之同宗兄弟,相繼執政; 彼哉:古代表示輕視之詞,不値一談之意; 伯氏 騈邑三百:伯氏 大夫,騈邑地名,伯氏有罪,管仲為相,削奪其采邑,伯氏终身疏食,管仲無怨言.

子產:公孫.國大夫.

管仲:夷吾,大夫,桓公霸諸侯.參閱3.22孔子管仲.

Someone asked about Zichan:Confucius said: A generous altruist.

Asked about Zixi. Confucius said:Oh,that fella! That fella!( the master disparagingly withholding his comment)

Again asked about Guang Zhong.

Confucius said:Quite a person.He took the town of Pian with its three hundred households from Bo,left him minimal and plain food to survive until all teeth fallen out(death), Bo found no chagrin in him.

14.10:貧而無怨,;富易無驕,.

本章言貧富二者之為人.

老師說:貧者能安於貧而無怨言是很難的.富者能居富而不驕是較容易的.

Confucius said:Poor and yet no complaints is hard,being rich and not prod is easy.

14.11:孟公綽,老則優,不可以為,大夫.

本章論孟公綽的器量.

老師說:孟公綽做趙魏二家的家臣之長,綽綽有餘.但沒有為滕薛兩小國做大夫的器量.

孟公綽:大夫; 趙魏:; :家臣之長; :寬綽有餘; 滕薛:魯附近兩個小諸侯國;

Confucius said:Meng Gongchuo has excessive ability when working as governor for the clans of Zhao and Wei.However he was not fit to be minister for the tiny states of Teng or Xue.

14.12 子路問成人,子曰:臧武仲之知,公綽之不欲,卞莊子之勇,冉求之藝,文之以禮樂,亦可以成人矣! …:今之成人者何必然!見利思義,見危授命,久要不忘平生之言,亦可以謂成人矣.

本章論一個人格完備的人的情况.

子路問怎樣才算是一個人格完備的人.老師說:要有臧武仲的智慧,孟公綽的寡欲,卞莊子的勇敢,冉求的才藝,再加上有詩書禮樂的培養,也可算是人格完備了.老師又說:現今的成人又何必如此?只要能做到見利時想到義,看到國家危難能付出自己生命,與人有舊約而不忘記過去的諾言,這也就算得上是一個人格完備的人了.

成人:人格完備的人; 臧武仲:臧孫紇 大夫,有智慧,當年(550,襄公二十三年)他獲罪出走,不久便回到他的封地防城,要挾氏立後.目的達到後,臧武仲便流亡.逃入國後,預料齊莊公不會長久而設法拒收莊公給的封地,莊公果遭不測,臧武仲沒因此受連,被人譽為聰明人;; 公綽:孟公綽,大夫,廉潔寡欲; 卞莊子: 卞邑大夫,有勇,曾隻身打虎; :修飾也; 授命:不愛其生,共赴危難; 久要:舊約; 平生之言:平日所許之諾言.

子路: 子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked about the definition of a person of moral success.

Confucius said: As wise as Zang Wuzhong,as contented and void of desire  as Meng Gongchuo,as brave asBian ZhuangZi, as talented as RanQiu,and erudite with the rite and musicmight be defined as a person of moral success.The master then added:However today maybe not quite so.A person who in sight of gains can still remember his/her obligations,in face of dangerwill risk his/her life for the sake of righteousness,in the long standing poverty still not forsake his/her early principles…may also be defined as a person of moral success.

14.13 公叔文子公明賈:信乎?夫子不言,不笑,不取乎? …公明賈對曰:以告者過也,夫子時然後言,人不厭其言;樂然後笑,人不厭其笑;義然後取, 人不厭其取.子曰:其然,豈其然乎?

本章言公叔文子為人.

老師向公明賈公叔文子的為人.“真的麼?公孫大夫不苟言,不苟笑,不貪取非分之利嗎?”…公明賈:那是告訴你的人說得太過了.公孫大夫是當說的時候才說,人不討厭他的話,當開懷的時候才笑,人不討厭他的笑.在合理的情形下才收取應得的利,人不討厭他的得利; …老師說:他是這樣嗎!難道他真的是這樣嗎?

公叔文子:大夫公孫拔.諡曰; 公明賈:;

Confucius asked Gongming Jia about Gong Shu Wenzi:Is it true that he neither speaks,laughs nor takes?

Gongming Jia replied:He who told you this was exaggerating.Wenzi speaks when it is the time for him to speak,therefore no one is tiresome of his speaking.he laughs when he is joyful,therefore no one is sick of his laughters,he takes what is right for him to take, therefore no one is envy of his takings.

The master said: WAs that so? Was it really like so?

14.14:臧武仲求為後於,雖曰不要君,吾不信也.

本章孔子臧武仲.

老師說:臧武仲以據守他的所封防邑,國要求立他的後代,雖說不是要挾於君,我不相信呢.

臧武仲:臧孫紇 大夫,有智慧,當年(550,魯襄公二十三年)他獲罪出走,不久便回到他的封地防城,要挾氏立後.目的達到後,臧武仲便流亡.逃入國後,預料齊莊公不會長久而設法拒收莊公給的封地,莊公果遭不測,臧武仲沒因此受連,被人譽為聰明人; :地名,臧武仲之封邑,今之山東縣東北,靠近之邊界; 為後於:臧武仲有罪出莾於防城,要求立其後人於,許之,立其子.

Confucius said:Zang Wuzhong controlling the fief of Fangasked prince of Lu to appoint his descendants as senior ministers in Lu.Though it was said that the prince was not coerced into the arrangement, I do not believe that.

14.15:晋文公譎而不正,齊桓公正而不譎.

本章分別晋文,齊桓之正譎.

老師說:晋文公行事用權詐而不行正道.齊桓公行正道而不用權詐.

晋文公:重耳; :jue譎粵讀决,詭詐的陰謀手段; 齊桓公:小白,齊桓,晋文皆以霸業,尊王攘夷.孔子評論其長短;

Confucius said:Duke wen of Jin was crafty but not justifiable.Duke Huan of Qi was righteous but not shrewd.  

14.16 子路:桓公公子糾,召忽死之,管仲不死; …:未仁乎? …子曰:桓公九合諸侯,不以兵車,管仲之力也.如其仁!如其仁!

本章贊管仲桓公以成霸業.

子路:桓公殺了公子糾,召忽自殺,管仲卻不肯死,這不能說是仁人吧? …老師說:桓公九次會合諸侯,並非憑着共車多的武力,全是管仲在政治上的功勞(尊王攘夷).這就是他的仁!這就是他的仁!

公子糾:齊襄公無道被弒,鮑叔牙奉公子小白,管仲,召忽公子糾,兄弟爭入國,公子糾被殺,召忽.管仲.鮑叔牙管仲,成霸主.

子路: 子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu said:When Duke Huan of Qi slew brother grandee Jiu,Zhao Hu died with him,but Guan Zhong escaped death.

Zilu added :Was Guan Zhong in lack of virtue?

Confucius said:Duke Huan was able to bring all the nine states into alliance peacefully without the use of military forces,Guan Zhong deserved all credits.Such was his virtue! Such was his virtue!

14.17 子貢:管仲非仁者與,桓公公子糾,不能死,又相之; …子曰:管仲桓公,霸諸侯,一匡天下,民到于今受其賜,管仲,吾其被髮左社矣!豈若匹夫匹婦之為諒也?自經於溝凟而莫之知也.

本章評論管仲雖非仁人,有功於天下.

子貢:管仲不是個仁人吧,桓公殺了公子糾,管仲公子糾之臣,不但不死,反又為桓公之相; …老師說:管仲輔助齊桓公,稱霸於諸侯,使諸侯同能尊王攘夷,以正道於天下,使中國不淪於夷狄,人民到現在還受着他的恩惠,如果沒有管仲,我們早就披着頭髮,袒着右臂,非衣冠之族的夷狄之人了.豈能同那一般人守小節的見解,自縊在溝渠之間,不為人所知麽?

:正也,匡天下,即謂以{尊王攘夷}之名,正天下也; :無也; 自經:自縊;

子貢: 端木賜衛國人.(貢本作贛),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子貢有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

Zigong said:Guan Zhong,should be  considered a man in lack of virtue.When Duke Huan slew his brother Jiu,Guan Zhong did not die along with him,whereas he became prime minister for the duke of Huan.

Confucius said:Guan Zhong helped Duke Huan to become leader of all vassals,united and rectified the whole world,his feats have hitherto been beneficial to us all.Without Guan Zhong,we should now wear our hair disheveled,and fold our clothes to bare our left (like barbarians). How can we consider only the view of an  ordinary man or woman is correct? For the sake of an ideological fidelity commitment,to commit suicide in a stream of ditch,leaving no one knowing about them?

14.18 公叔文子之臣大夫僎,文子同升諸公.孔子聞之曰:可以謂文矣.

本章孔子公叔文子能薦賢於朝,可稱得上是{}.

公叔文子的家臣大夫,與文子同升公朝為臣.老師聽到此事,:文子這,人可{}.

:國大夫本為公叔文子之家臣,文子薦之,與之同列於公朝,孔子美之.

{}:追封諡號謂賢能之士

Gongshu Wenzi became a of wei minister together with his retainer Xun. When Confucius heard of that, Said:Its appropriate to confer Wenzi the posthumous title {Wen} (erudite)

14.19 衞靈公之無道也.康子:夫如是奚而不喪?孔子曰:仲叔圉治賓客,祝鮀治宗廟,王孫賈治軍旅,夫如是,奚其喪?

本章言治國在能任賢用才.

老師說及衞靈公無道之事,季康子說:既然這樣,為何不喪失其君位呢? …孔子:衞國有賢臣仲叔圉掌禮賓之事,祝鮀治理宗廟之事,王孫賈治軍旅,既然能用賢才,怎會失去君位呢?

奚而不喪:為何不喪失其位; 仲叔圉:衞國賢臣; 祝鮀: 子魚,左傳稱祝佗,衛大夫,官大祝.有口才; 王孫賈:大夫,參閱3.13;

康子:複姓季孫.謚曰.?-468國大夫正卿事魯哀公,此時國公室衰弱.季孫族系之名乃公子季友之後.亦稱為季氏.季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣. {歷史背景}季康子季孫肥,春秋時期國的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.諡康.史稱季康子.季孫肥[]字則為尊稱,所以說季孫並不是氏稱,季孫某僅限於對宗主的稱謂而已,宗族一般成員只能稱季某.季孫肥季氏,而非季孫氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏為首的三桓強盛,季氏宗主季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣.再敍歷史上此時孔子門生的政迹:魯定公十五年,公薨,哀公蔣.當時,季桓子為首的{三桓}甚為強盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是為季康子.當時的,,國兩個大國的夾縫裏生存,處境不是很好.{三桓}之間的關係也不是很融洽,季康子的專權,讓其它二桓:叔孫氏,孟氏很不滿.哀公七年(486),(夫差)無禮,強逼國貢獻百牢(一百條牢[肉牛];禮制定各諸侯貢禮不能超過十二牢),國被迫貢獻,繼而國太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子來朝見他,雖然國不如國強,康子還是拒絕了,似乎很有氣節,實則他覺得國雖大卻難成氣候,最終仍是無法稱霸的,故無懼於他.哀公十一年(482),國入侵,叔孫,孟氏季氏專權,不肯聽從季康子的號令將人攔在國土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,擊退了,接著會同國在艾陵大敗,史稱艾陵之戰.然而此戰之後,季康子卻加緊戰備,以防國再來.哀公十一年,季康子使公華,公賓,公林以幣(古代贈送賓客或用于祭祀的束帛.幣帛)來迎接孔子回國.至此,{三桓}逐出國的孔子終於得以回,並完成他晚年修書的事業.可以說,季康子間接地成全了孔夫子作為聖人的大業.哀公十二年,季康子[田賦],改革稅賦,進一步加速禮崩樂壞的過程,這當然是孔子不願意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.魯定公時期,孔子是與三桓鬥爭的重要權臣,但是結果還是被強大的三桓打敗,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.當年(469),季康子,叔孫文子,孟武伯跟隨哀公後庸(越王勾踐)平陽開會,季康子會中討論問題談到子貢.季康子:假如現在子貢在這裏,我們根本不會與蠻夷(越國)訂這種盟約.孟武伯:的確不錯,那為什麼不叫子貢? 季康子:我馬上就叫子貢;孫叔文子:即使是到了以後,也不要忘記今天的說話(故此左氏春秋亦有記載此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.魯哀公雖然親自弔唁,然所行的卻是低一級不完備的禮節.

衞靈公:姬姓,衛氏,(?-493)國第28代國君, 534-493年在位.(衛襄公之子,衛後莊公之父,衛出公之祖父).靈公是著名昏君,其愛屠好男寵,多猜忌,脾氣暴躁,但是,他擅長知人,用人.

When Confucius  talked about Duke Ling of Wei being walking away from the righteous path,Ji Kang Zi asked:In such case, why has he not lost his throne?

Confucius said:He has Zhongshu Yu to deal with foreign affairs (envoys and guests),Zhu Tuo in charge of the ancestral temple,Wangsun Jia to lead the army,in such cases,how would he lose his throne?

14.20 :其言之不怍,則為之也難.

本章言凡人言不慚,必難做到.

老師說:凡人大言不慚,就難以做得到.

:zuo粤讀昨,慚愧;

Confucius said:He who is not modest in his talking, finds difficulties in doing most of the things.

14.21 陳成子簡公,孔子沐浴而朝,告於哀公:陳桓弑其君,請討之! …公曰:告夫三子者; …孔子:以吾從大夫之後,不敢不告也; …君曰:[告夫三子者!]之三子告,不可;…孔子:以吾從大夫之後,不敢不告也.

本章記孔子在朝事君之道.困難重重.

陳成子弒了齊簡公,孔子沐浴齋戒上朝,告於魯哀公:陳成子弒了他的國君,請出兵討伐他;…哀公:去告訴那三家大夫;…孔子:因我也在大夫之後,這種大事,不敢不告於君啊!…君說:去告訴三家大夫;…孔子往告訴三家大夫;…三家大夫說:不可出兵討伐;…孔子:因我也在大夫之後,不敢不告啊!

陳成子:齊大夫,又名田成子; 簡公:君名; 三子:三家大夫,季孫子,仲孫子,孟孫子; 不敢不告:言弒君之賊,法所必討,大夫謀國,義所當告.

Duke Jian of Qi was assassinated by Chen Cheng Zi,Confucius fast and bathed , went to court and told Duke Ai of Lu.:Chen Heng has slain his prince.Please send punitive expedition.

Duke Ai said:Infrom the three chiefs.

Confucius said:Following in the wake of great ministers,I dared not to leave suck a matter untold.Yet the prince said go to inform the three chiefs.

Confucius went to inform the three chiefs.They refused to pursue operation.

Confucius said: Following in the wake of great ministers,I dared not to leave such a matter untold.

14.22 子路問事君::勿欺也,而犯之.

本章言事君之道.

子路問事奉國君之道.老師說:不可欺騙君上,且要犯顏直諫.

犯之:犯顏直諫;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked about serving the prince.

Confucius said: Do not swindle him.Do not fear to upset him when telling him the truth.

14.23:君子上達,小人下達.

本章言君子與小人為人之不同.

老師說:君子日進乎高明,上通達於天理,小人日趨向下流,徇天於慾望.

上達:達於天理,日進乎高明; 下達:下徇於人欲,日趨下流;

Confucius said:A moral rectitude person knows the heavenly mandate of righteousness. A villain knows how to fulfil earthly desires of greed.

14.24:古之學者為己,今之學者為人.

本章言古今之為學的目的不同.

老師說:古代為學的人,是為着修養自已,進德日新.現在為學的人,是為沽名釣譽,着重他人的評價.

Confucius said:In ancient times,people anxious to learn for the sake to improve themselves.Nowadays people anxious to improve themselves for the sake to impress others.

14.25 蘧伯玉使人於孔子.孔子與之坐而問焉,:夫子何為? 對曰:夫子欲寡其過而未能也;…使者出,子曰:使乎! 使乎!

本章孔子蘧伯玉使者之德.

蘧伯玉派遣使者到孔子處問候,孔子和他一起坐着,孔子:大夫做些什麼? …使者答道:大夫想要減少自己的過失,但總覺還未能做到呢! …使者辭出,孔子:好一位使者啊,好一位使者啊.

蘧伯玉:大夫,伯玉,孔子衞國,曾入住他的家; 夫子:蘧伯玉;欲寡其過而未能:言其但欲寡過而猶未得.

Qi Boyu sent a messenger to Confucius . Confucius sat with him and asked:What is the master doing?

The messenger replied:The master is attempting to make his faults fewer,but is yet to succeed.

When the messenger had left, Confucius said: What a messenger! What a messenger!

14.26:不在其位,不謀其政.

本章重出{泰伯篇},不在職位,不應參與該政務.參閱8.14

Confucius said:He who is not in that particular office,would not discuss its policies.

14.27曾子:君子思不出其位.

本章記曾子引易經第伍拾貳之艮卦象辭,言為政者當專於己職.

曾子:君子思慮所及,當不越出自己的職守.

曾子:子輿505-436武城,曾點之子.父子皆為孔子弟子.事親至孝.悟聖道一貫之旨.以其學傳子思(孔子孫兒),後世稱為宗聖.作曾子十八篇.孔子孫兒孔伋之師也,子思之儒.孔伋曾子孝道矣.

Zengzi said:A superior person would not plan for matters that are beyond his duties.

14.28:君子恥其言而過其行.

本章言君子言行一致也.

老師說:君子以為恥的是他所說的超過他所做的.

Confucius said:A responsible person is ashamed of saying more than what he can do.

14.29:君子道者三,我無能焉! 仁者不憂,知者不惑,勇者不懼; …子貢:夫子自道也.

本章言君子之道,仁智勇三德行.

老師說:君子之道有三種,我未能做到呢! 仁者存心無私故不憂,知者潤明事理故不惑,勇者正氣充足故不懼; …子貢:老師說的正是他自己啊!

子貢:端木賜衛國人.(貢本作贛),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子貢有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

Confucius said:A superior person has three successes. However I can achieve none of them.A benevolent person is free of worries,a wise person is free of doubts and and bold person is free of fears.

Ziggong said:Our master is only depicting himself.

14.30 子貢方人,子曰:也賢乎哉?夫我則不暇.

本章勉子貢,人當盡其在我,何須比人.

子貢喜歡比較人的長短,老師說:!自己是不是都做好算是賢者了呢? 如是我,那有閒工夫去研究別的好壞長短呢.

方人:比較人之長短;

子貢: 端木賜衛國人.(貢本作贛),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子貢有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

Ziggong was fond of criticizing others.

Confucius said:Ci Oh Ci! Are you perfect yourself? I am not,therefore I have no time for that.

14.31:不患人之不己知,患其不能也.

本章勉人力求諸己,不必憂人之不知.此章凡四出,孔子叮嚀子弟自修也.參閱1.16

老師說:不憂慮別人不知道我的才能,憂慮的是自己有什麼不能的.

Confucius said:I do not worry if people do not know my ability.I am only concerned if my ability does meet up with people’s expectation.

14.32:不逆詐,不億不信;抑亦先覺者,是賢乎?

本章戒人不可逆測揣想,臨事能先知賢也.

老師說:不去事先預測人會詐騙,不事先揣度別人之不信.但能在臨事之際,先察覺到有詐與不信,這不就是賢人嗎?

逆詐:預測人之有詐; 億不信:預先揣測其不信; :但是;

Confucius said: He who is neither presuppositional about others being deceitful,nor harbours a groundless suspicionagainst their dishonesty,and yet can apprehend a swindler readily,is he not a man of able?

14.33微生畝孔子:何謂是栖栖者與?無乃為佞乎? …孔子:非敢為佞也,疾固也.

本章明孔子求道於天下,知其不可為而為之.

微生畝(國長者)孔子:!為什麼這樣不遑寧處的樣子呢? 未免是賣弄口才取悅於人嗎? …孔子:不敢以口才賣弄,是我太固執罷了.

微生畝:微生,國隱士,齒尊於孔子; 栖栖:xi栖粵讀棲,忙碌不安定的樣子; :務於善辯以取悅於人; 疾固;病在自己(孔子自批)之固執也.

Weisheng Mu asked Confucius:Why are you so busy?Or is it nothing more than a flamboyant eloquence?

Confucius said:I dare not be so,its only a sickness of  my obstinacy.

14.34:驥不稱其力.稱其德也.

本章比喻人應重德勝於量才.

老師說:千里馬並不稱揚牠的力能行速,卻是稱揚他的德性馴良.

:良駒,日行千里,甚速,其德馴良;

Confucius said:A steed is not valued for its strength, but its tamed quality.

14.35或曰:以德報怨,何如? 子曰:何以報德? 以直報怨,以德報德.

本章斥以德報怨為偽.

有人問:與人有怨恨,以恩德回報他,這樣做好嗎? …老師說:那怎樣去報答對你有恩德的人呢?應該以公平正直的態度去回報有怨恨的人,以恩德去報答對你有恩德的人.

:公平正直;

Someone asked:To requite evil with good, How about that?

Confucius said:What about requiting the good? Requite evil with justice.Requite good with good.

14.36:莫我知也夫? …子貢:其莫知子也? …子曰:不怨天,不尤人,下學而上達;知我者其天乎?

本章孔子自歎不遇.

老師說:無人能知我吧? …子貢:什麽沒有人知道老師呢? …老師說:我道不行,既不怨於天,也不歸罪於人,我下學人事,上達天理,到達天人合一境界,世人已不能知,只有天知道了吧?

下學上達:下學人事上達天理;

Confucius said:Alas! no one on earth understands me!

Zigong asked:How come no one understands you?

The master said:I do not blame heaven nor I complain anyone on earth.My studies though are earthly yet they are compatible with the mandate of heaven.Thats why only heaven understands me!

14.37公伯寮子路季孫,子服景伯以告,:夫子固有惑志於公伯寮,吾力猶能肆諸市朝;…子曰:道之將行也與?命也.道之將廢也與?命也.公伯寮其如命何?

本章就子路被讒之事,訓君子應當以義安命,以曉景伯,子路,伯寮.

公伯寮季孫處說子路的壞話,子服景伯將此事告知孔子,:季孫大夫已經聽信伯寮的讒,子路起了疑惑.我能使季孫明白真相,公伯寮殺了,陳尸於市; …老師說:道能夠行於世呢,是天意自然之理啊,道將要廢除於世也是天意自然之理啊! 公伯寮又能將天意怎樣呢?

公伯寮:公伯,子周,國人.孔子學生; :同訴,誣謗也; 子服景伯:名何,國大夫; 子服景伯:子服民,,,大夫服何是也; 夫子:本章指季孫; 肆諸市朝:,陳尸也,能使季孫,陳其尸於市也;

Gongbo Lido calumniated Zilu in front of Jisun.

Zifu Jinbo told Confucius: The old man was surely bewildered by Gongbo Lido,but I still have enough strength to expose his corpse in the market.

Confucius said:If my principles are to prevail in the world,it is the will of heaven. If they are to fall to the ground, it is also the will of heaven. Can Gongbo Lido fight against the will of Heaven?

14.38:賢者辟世,其次辟地,其次辟色,其次辟言.作者七!

本章言賢者不苟合於世.

老師說:賢者見天下無道,避世而隠,其次避開此亂地,其次見人的禮貌面色不正即避開, 其次見人的言語不遜亦速避開.有七人走了!

:同避;

Confucius said:The able men shun the world when its turbulent,the next best one shun the land when its not peaceful,the one after that shun the countenance when its impolite, the last one shun the words when they are rude. Seven men have had shunned already!

14.39:作者七人矣!

本章承上章述賢者見幾而起避世而去者已有七人矣.

老師說:見幾而起避去者已有七人了.

:起而避開;

(14.38)

14.40子路宿於石門,晨門曰:奚自? :孔氏; :是知其不可而之者與?

本章記世人對孔子的印像.

子路石門外住了一宿,第二天一早進城,守門的人說:你從何處來? …子路:孔氏;…守門的說:就是那位明知不可的人麼?

石門:魯城外門; 晨門:守門者,掌晨夜開關城門者;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu spent a night at Shimen.The city gate watcher asked him:Where do you cone from?

Zilu replied:From Master Kung.

The gate watcher said: Is he the master who consistently pursue doing what he knows he could not succeed?

14.41擊磬於,有荷蕢而過孔氏之門者,:有心哉, 擊磬乎! …旣而曰:鄙哉!硜硜乎!莫己知也,斯已而已矣![深則厲,淺則揭]…子曰:果哉!末之難矣.

本章記隠者聞磬而知孔子,猶不明其意也.

孔子國正敲磬,有個背着盛泥土草筐的人,孔子的門前經過,:這是位有思想的人擊磬啊! …一會兒又說:鄙陋得很啊!心志那樣的固執不變,旣然無人知道自己嘛,該停止就應停止算了.所謂[遇到深水,就和衣涉水;遇着淺水,就提衣而渡];…老師說:這人果然是忘世而隱,他那知世道之難啊;(老師喻意人在江瑚身不猶己)

明朝<<石刻聖跡圖:適衛擊磬>>:孔子經過蒲地來到,與弟子們擊磬.有個挑着草筐經過孔子門口的人說:“擊磬的人有心思啊!”,過了一會又說:“磬聲,可鄙呀!沒有人了解自己就算了,水深就穿着衣服涉過去,水淺就撩起衣服走過去.”孔子:“好果斷啊!但他不知道我的難處

:樂器; 荷蕢:,背負;,草制盛土的用器; 硜硜乎:擊石之聲,堅固確實之義,荷蕢之人從孔子敲磬的聲中,知其為不隨世宜而通權達變之人; 斯已而已: ,止也;應該止的就止吧; 深則厲,淺則揭:乃詩經{衞風}匏有苦葉之句.言過深水,就以衣涉水而過,遇到淺水,就提衣而渡,謂應世深淺要適時宜對也;

Confucius was striking the Qing(a percussion instrument)in Wei one day,a man carrying a straw basket passed his door and said:What a mind burdened with thoughts! Like the sound of his Qing.

A moment later, he added:So remote yet sounds so persistent! Should you  not be understood,you should therefore understand your own self.When the water is deep, advance in it with your clothes on, when water is shallow,ust lift up your wearings.

Confucius said:Is it really so simple to achieve indeed?! Justsimply  not understanding the difficulties!

14.42子張:書云[高宗諒陰,三年不言]何謂也? …子曰:何必高宗?古之人皆然,君薨,百官總己以聽於家宰三年.

本章述天子諸侯居喪之禮.

子張:尚書載[商高宗居喪,住在梁闇裡三年不言]是什麼意義呢? …老師說:何必一定是高宗如此,古代的沒有一個不是如此,國君死了,朝廷的百官總攝自己的職務聽從太宰的命令,共歷三年.

高宗諒陰:見尚書{無逸篇},高宗 商王武丁是也,諒陰:天子居喪之稱也,三年不施政令,諒陰又作梁闇,天子居喪之蘆,一梁支脊而無楹柱,茅垂於地,從旁出入曰梁闇; :帝王之死; 總己:總攝己職; 家宰:太宰也;

子張:顓孫,孔子弟子.孔子48.陳國人,孔子曾說過師也過(11.14),師也辟(11.16);後世有子張之儒派.

Zizhang said:The book of History recorded‘Gaozong when mourning for the death of his father ,did not speak for three years’,what does that mean?

Confucius said: Not only Gaozong in particular,The ancients all were the same.Whenever a prince died,the whole office would take orders from the governor of the prince family affairs.

14.43:上好禮則民易使也.

本章言為政在上者好禮,則政令易於民徹.

老師說:在上位當政者若好禮,那麼人民就容易驅使了.

Confucius said:When authorities are fond of observing strictly the rites, their people will be easy to lead.

14.44子路問君子.子曰:修己以敬,…:如斯而已乎? …:修己以安人;…: 如斯而已乎?…:修己以安百姓.修己以安百姓,堯舜其猶病諸?

本章言君子之道,在修己安人.

子路問怎樣做才算是君子執政.老師說:以謹敬合禮來修養自己;…子路再問:這樣就夠了麼?…老師說:修養好自己,再去安定別人;…子路又問:像這樣就夠了麼?…老師說:修養好自己,進一步去使百姓安定.修養自己,再去安定百姓,堯舜都恐怕還不能做到呢.

修己以敬:自己先要修養,謹記合乎禮; 安人:安定別人;

子路: 子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked about how to achieve a Superior Character.

Confucius said: Anyone who can cultivate oneself to the utmost capacity, to become respectful.

Zilu asked: Is that all?

Confucius said: to cultivate oneself to give ease to others.

Zilu said: Is that all!

The master said:to cultivate oneself to give ease and settle all people…even Yao and Shun had found it difficult to achieve!

14.45 原壤夷俟,:幼而不孫弟,長而無述焉,老而不死,!以杖叩其脛(jing粵讀莖)

本章責原壤無禮.

原壤蹲着等待孔子到來,老師說:你小時候就不知道遜讓長上,長大後,又沒有什麼直得稱道的,到老年還沒死去,你真是個傷風敗俗的人啊! …老師用手杖輕敲他的小腿.

原壤:孔子之故人,{禮記}記載他母死而歌,蓋謂老子之流,自放於禮法之外; 夷俟(si粤讀自):,蹲着;,等待; 無述:沒有什麼直得稱道的; :敗常亂俗之人; 叩其脛:jing粵讀莖,敲打其小腿.

Yuan Rang was crouchingsprawlingly like a barbarian to wait for confucius to arrive.

Confucius came and said:You did not know the rules of propriety when young, and achieved nothing as adult,you merely live on getting older staying alive,a real ruiner indeed!

Confucius knocked Yuan Rang’s  shin with his staff.

14.46闕黨童子將命,或問之曰:益者與? 子曰:吾見其居於位也.見其與先生並行也,非求益者也,欲速成者也.

本章記闕黨童子不知禮讓.

闕黨的一個童子,替主客傳話,有人問道:這童子有否長進之望呢?…老師說:我見他坐在成年人的位子上,又和長輩並肩而走,不是像在道德學問上求長進,只是想快些成長為大人罷了.

闕黨:堂名(會所),孔子之故里,闕里; 將命:傳達賓主之辭命; 居於位:古代禮節,孩童須隔坐,成人才有位.童子坐成人位是無禮行; 益者與:有否長進之望;

A boy from the village of Que cam with an errand,someone asked:Is the boy improving himself?

Confucius said:I saw him sitting among the adults’ seas, walking shoulder to shoulder along with his seniors, he was not eager to improve himself, he was only anxious to become equal with the other.

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