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子路 第十三篇  

2011-08-10 14:42:08|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

加碼德筆記【論語淺譯子路 第十三篇 共三十章

子路 第十三篇 共三十章

 

---13.1 子路問政.子曰:先之,勞之; …請益; …:無倦.

本章言為政當身先其民而勞.起領導作用.

子路問為政之道,老師說:領導人民,凡事自已要比人民先實行,先勞苦; …子路請求多說一點; …老師說:要能持久不倦怠.

先之勞之:言為政貴者能以身先其民而勞;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked about how to govern.

Confucius said:You should be in the van of your people. Be laborious too.

‘Please explain more’Zilu begged.

Confucius said:Never feel tiresome.

13.2 仲弓季氏,問政.子曰:先有司,赦小過,擧賢才; …:焉知賢才而擧之? …:擧爾所知,爾所不知,人其舍諸?

本章言為政要能擧賢才.

仲弓做了季氏家臣,問為政之道.老師說:凡事自己要比屬下的官員們率先躬行.有小的過失,當寬免他們.擧用有德有能的人; …仲弓:怎知道有賢才而擧用他們呢? …老師說:擧用你所知道的.你所不知道的,別人會捨棄他們不來推薦嗎?

先有司:以身率先百官; 賢才:有德和能之人; 人其舍諸:人能捨棄他嗎?

仲弓: ,仲弓,比孔子細二十九歲,國人.冉雍出身貧賤,他的父亲行為不良,有人以此作為攻擊冉雍的借口.孔子弟子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).參閱6.4

When Zhonggong was employed as director for the Ji Clan(one of the highest aristocracies of the state Lu)asked the master for administration strategy.

Confucius said:Let junior officers manage on their own. Pardon small mistakes,recommend virtuous as well as talented personnel for promotion.

Zhonggong asked:Where do I find virtuous and talented personnel to recommend?

Confucius said:Recommend those you already knew. For those unknown to you,do you think others would forsake them?(not recommend them to you)

13.3子路:君待而為政,將奚先?…:必也正名乎?…子路:有是哉?之迂也!奚其正!…:野哉!.君子於其所不知,蓋闕如也.名不正則言不順,言不順則事不成,事不成則禮樂不興,禮樂不興則刑罸不中,刑罸不中則民無所措手足,故君子名之必可言也.言之必可行也.君子於其言,無所苟而已矣!

本章言孔子鍳於國父子爭君位,在上不義,何能為政.

子路:衛君正等待老師去從政,老師將以何事為先? …老師說:那必先將名分弄正,我才能從政啊! …子路說:有此必要麽?老師真是拘泥事理不切實際,有什麼名好正呢?…老師說:真是粗野不明事理的! 君子對於所不知道的,就該缺而不說.須知明分不正,說出來就不順.說的不順,事就做不成.事不成,禮樂便不能推行.禮樂不行刑罸就不得當. 刑罸不得當,人民將會手足無措.不知怎樣做才對.因此君子對有正確的名分,才好說話.說出來才行得通.君子對自己所說的,沒有苟且隨便的啊!

衛君:出公輒,其父蒯瞶流亡在外,人立而拒之.是君不君,臣不臣,父不父,子不子也; 正名:正其名分如君君,臣臣,父父,子子; :言拘於名理,不切實際; :鄙俗不知義理,率爾妄言; 闕如:,缺也.缺而不說也; 言不順:話不合乎理; :合乎理;無所苟:一名一言皆不可苟且隨便; :仲由; :何也;

蒯瞶立位衛莊公子路之死載於左傳魯哀公十五年(480)

國亂,太子蒯瞶.人立蒯瞶之子出公以拒蒯瞶.孔子臣父子不正名之謂也.

{左傳}:孔圉(yu圉粵讀乳本字義養馬的地方)娶了衛國太子蒯瞶的姊姊(伯姬)為妻.生一子名孔悝.孔圉的僕人(或曰:)良夫身材魁梧面貌英俊.孔圉死後,渾良夫就跟女主人通姦.當時蒯瞶亡命在.()渾良夫去看他.蒯瞶渾良夫許諾說:假如你能使我回國作君主,我可以讓你穿大夫的衣冠坐大夫的車駕.另外再赦免你三次死罪;…渾良夫蒯瞶訂約之後,就為蒯瞶孔姬請求.閏月,渾良夫蒯瞶同車進入.下禢在孔氏的別莊.當天黄昏時刻,渾良夫蒯瞶二人,化裝坐上一輛車,羅太趕車到孔氏.孔氏家臣欒寧問他們是什麽人,羅太監謊稱說:是親戚家的兩位婦女;…騙進大門後直入孔姬寢室.他們一行吃完晚飯後,孔姬就以戈為手杖走在前面,太子率領五名帶著盔甲的隨從,另外又用車拉著訂盟用的公豬跟在後面,在厠所追上孔悝強廹訂盟約.並且威脇他一同登上高殿;…欒寧想要喝酒,可是在肉還沒燒熟時,就得到發生變亂的消息.於是他就跑到子路那裏去通知,並且叫召獲準備馬車,把大家召集來以後舉兵共享酒肉.大家酒足飯飽之後,就護駕衛出公逃來.子路將要進入都時,子羔出來說:城門已經關上了;…子路:讓我姑且到門上看看吧!…子羔:權力不在我,我不願意惹這個禍;…子路:你既然拿孔氏的俸祿,就不要逃避孔氏的災難;…於是子羔才出來.子路剛走到入城門,城門就被關上了,而且改由公孫敢守門.公孫敢:不可以進去了;…子路:你是公孫敢!為自己的利害而逃避禍難,假如是我仲由絕不會那樣作.因為一個人吃主人的俸祿,就一定要拿出良心為主人解決災難;…可巧這時有位使者出城,子路乃乘隙進入城內說:太子何必用孔悝?即使把孔悝殺死,也必然有人繼孔悝之後跟太子決戰.子路又說:太子沒有勇氣,假如用火把高臺燒毀一半,他們必定會把孔悝放出;…蒯瞶聽了這話很害怕.就命令石乞,孟黶(yan粵讀掩,本字義黑痣)下去抵抗子路.他們二人用戈猛攻子路.結果竟把子路的帽纓(ying纓粵讀英,絲綫等制成穗狀裝飾物)砍掉,這時子路:君子死不足惜,但是死時必要戴上帽子,…於是子路就戴好了帽子立好了帽纓才壯烈成仁.(左傳原文,子路:君子死,冠不免;…結纓而死); …孔子知道衛國發生內亂之後就說:高柴(參閱11.16)一定會回來.子路必然殉難;…後來孔悝就立了蒯瞶國君,便是衛莊公,出公輒的父親,孔悝的舅父了.翌年,周敬王四十一,魯哀公十六年夏四月 己丑(今農歷二月十八日)孔子,魯城城北泗.

:子路子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙,野而好勇.事親孝.大夫:孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬()良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路不應遂被害.

Zilu said: The prince of Wei is waiting for you to be his governor of Wei.Do master have priorities?

Confucius said:Of courseThe verification of appropriate title is the utmost  priority.

Zilu said: Is that so! How very pedantic it is.Why must name be verified?

Confucius said: Oh Zhong You, how uncivilized is your view. On matters that one does not know, a superior man shows a cautious silence. If subject matter is not rectitudinous, its speech cannot be cogent When its speech is not cogent,operation therefore will not be successful.When operation fails to succeed,rite and music do not flourish.When rite and music do not flourish,law of punishment  will lose itsjustice.and when law of punishment lose its justice,people do not know how to make plans for their hands and feet.Thats why a superior man considers it necessary that only title of a rectitudinous matter  can be spoken of.. and when its spoken, its therefore workable for sure. A superior person considers his speech/promise would not be a perfunctorily careless one.

13.4 樊遲請學稼.子曰:吾不如老農; …請學為圃; …:吾不如老圃; …樊遲, 子曰人哉!須也.上好禮則民莫敢不敬,上好義則民莫敢不服,上好信則民莫敢不用:小情.夫如是,則四方之民,襁負其子而至矣!焉用稼?

本章孔子闡揚儒家思想.為政在禮義,稼穡乃細民之事.

樊遲請學種植五穀的方法,老師說:我不如老農夫; …樊遲又請學種植蔬菜方法,老師說:我不如種菜的人; …樊遲退出後.老師說:真是個鄉野的細民.樊須這人啊!在上位的人好禮,人民沒有敢不恭敬的,在上位的人好義, 人民沒有敢不服從的,在上位的人好信,人民沒有敢不以忠誠真實對上,政治上能做到這樣,四方的人民,都會背著孩子來了. 為政的人何必自己要去學種田種菜呢?

:種植五穀也; :種植菜蔬也; 小人:細民; 用情:以誠實; 襁負:以布縷負小孩於背也;

樊遲:,子遲,故亦作樊遲.515-?魯人,孔子弟子,仕於季氏.

Fan Chi begged to learn agriculture.

Confucius said:I am not as good as an old farmer.Fan Chi wished to learn market gardening.

Confucius said:I am not as good as an old gardener.  

Fan Chi left. The master said: How junior indeed is Fan Chi! If the authority above is fond of propriety,people below would not dare not to be respectful. If the authority above is fond of righteousness, the people below will not dare to disobey, if the authority above is fond of integrity, the people below would not dare to pretend.Then people from four corners will come to him.carrying their children on their backs,what need would then be for us to learnthe knowledge of farming?

13.5 子曰:誦詩三百,授之以政,不達,使於四方,不能專對;雖多亦奚以?

本章言學詩在能言致用.通達為政之道.

老師說:讀了詩經三百首,如授給他政事,不能夠治理,派他出使到四方的國家去,不能單獨應對,雖然詩讀的多,又有什麼用呢?

不達:不能明達治理; 專對:單獨能應對; :什麼

Confucius said:Although a person may be able to recite all three hundred poems of the book of poetry, yetif appoint that person with an official duty, he/she neither knows how to act when put to govern,nor can he/she answer on their own when sent on mission to four corners,despite the eruditeness of his/her academics,of what use is it for them?

13.6 子曰:其身正,不令而行;其身不正,雖令不從.

本章言為政者,當先正己身.

老師說:在上位的本身做事公正,不待下令發動,人民自然會去做了. 在上位的己身做事不公不正,雖然下令,人民也不會應從的.

:法律;

Confucius said: When a ruler is moral rectitude,his plans will all be workable without giving orders.If the ruler is not moral rectitude, even orders are given,they will be followed by no one.

13.7子曰:魯衛.兄弟也.

本章評魯國 衛國之政治相似.

老師說:\魯國衛國的政治策略,兄弟一樣(出自一家)

魯衛:魯國,周公之後,衛國,康叔之後.本為兒兄弟之邦.

Confucius said:The politics of Lu and Wei,brotherhoods alike.

13.8 子謂衛公子荊善居室.始有曰:苟合矣! …少有曰:苟完矣! …富有曰:苟美矣!

本章評衛公子荊循序漸進之美德.

老師評論衛公子荊很會治理家業.在他開業時說:勉強湊合能用就好了. 稍多的時候,他說:差不多完備了! 到了很富足的時候他說:勉強算是夠完美了!

衛公子荊:衛國大夫; 善居室:很會治理家業; :暫且.

Talking about Jing the master of the state of Wei,Confucius said:He managed the economy of his family business well.When he began to have means,he said its plenty.when he grew a little better, he said its fairly complete.When he became rich, he said its almost perfect.

Connotation:Always Happy is the person who is always content

13.9 子適,冉有.子曰:庶矣哉! …冉有:旣庶矣,又何加焉? …:富之! …: 旣富矣,又何加焉? …:教之!

本章言治國之階程.

孔子前往衛國,冉有駕着車子,老師說:人口真多啊! …冉有:人口旣已眾多,應該再做什麽呢? …老師說:要使人民富足; …冉有:人民旣已富足了,應該再做什麽 呢? …老師說:要教化他們了.

:往也; :駕車也; :人口眾多.

冉有:522-489,子有,亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰.參閱11.15

Confucius was on the way to Wei.Ran You was driving his carriage for him. The master said:What a dense population here!

Ran You said:Since the people are numerous,what should be done next to upgrade the state?

Confucius said:suffice the people.

Ran You said:And when they are sufficed,what comes next?

Confucius said: civilize them.

13.10 :苟有用我者朞月而可也,三年有成.

本章孔子歎當時莫能用己也.

老師說:如果有用我治理國,一周年就可以了.三年可以成功.

朞月:朞同期.期月,周一歲之月,即一年也; 

Confucius said:If I were employed in the government,twelve months I can put all things in order.In three years, I can achieve success.

13.11:[善人為邦百年,亦可以勝殘去殺矣] 誠哉!是言也.

本章言善人治國,可化民於善.

老師說:古人話,善人相繼主持國政,經過百年,可使殘暴的人變善.國家就可廢除殺人的刑法了; …這話說得真對啊!

勝殘去殺:化殘暴的人不為惡,可去除刑殺之罸也;

Confucius said:‘If a humane ruler governs a , state for a century, kindness will overcome cruelty, and killings will become obsolete’. How genuine is this pronouncement indeed!

13.12 :如有王者,必世而後仁.

本章言聖王主政,三十年後,仁道化行天下.

老師說:如果有聖王主政,也必須三十年,而後仁道可以大行天下了.

:聖王; :三十年為一世;

Confucius said: If a genuine emperor were come to power,still would take him thirty years for virtue to prevail.

13.13:苟正其身矣,於從政乎何有? 不能正其身,如正人何?

本章言欲為政須先正其身.

老師說:如果先使己身端正,這於從事國政有何難呢?不能端正己身,怎樣能去糾正別人?

正其身:己身正直.

Confucius said:Should a ruler assure himself to be moral rectitude,what difficulty would he encounter in his government? If he is not rectitudinous himself, how would he rectify others?

13.14 冉子退朝,:何晏也?…對曰:有政;…:其事也?如有政,雖不吾以, 吾其與聞之.

本章明國政與家事,當有所分辦.

冉有季氏的私朝中退出,老師说:怎麼這樣的晚呢? …冉有:有國政討論; …老師說:那是季氏的家事吧? 如果有國政,雖然我現在不見用,我曾做過大夫,當與.

:晚也; 有政:有國家的事; :大夫之家事; :用也.

冉有: 522-489魯人,字子有,亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰. 參閱11.15

Ran You returned home after work.Confucius asked:Why so late?

Ran You replied:Public affair meeting.

Confucius said:I am pretty sure its Ji family private affairs.Should it be public affair, though I am not used in the government,I am informed with public matters.

13.15 定公:一言而可以興邦,有諸?孔子對曰:言不可以若是其幾也,人之言曰[為君難,為臣不易]如知為君之難也,不幾乎一言而興邦乎? …:一言而喪邦,有諸?孔子對曰:言不可以若是其幾也,人之言曰[子無樂乎為君,唯其言而莫予違也] 如其善而莫之違也,不亦善乎?如不善而莫之違也,不幾乎一言而喪邦乎?

本章言為君難,一言可以興邦喪邦.

魯定公:一句話可以興國,有這事麼? …孔子答:話不可以期望着必定這樣的.有人說:“做國君難,做臣子也不容易”,如果知道國君不容易做,不是幾乎說不可能一句話就可以興邦麼? …定公:一句話可以失去國家,這事麽? …孔子答道: 話不可以期望着必定這樣的.有人說:“做國君沒有什麼可快樂的,唯一可快樂的,只是說話沒人敢違抗罷了.”,如果國君說的是善的,沒有人敢違抗,這不是很好麼? 如果國君說的是不善的,沒人敢違抗而照令執行,這不是幾乎一句話可以失去國家麼?

:; 幾乎:相近; 定公:魯定公

Duke Ding of Lu asked:‘A single suggestion can make prosperous for a state’,Is this saying possible?

Confucius responded:Probably not.As people says:‘Its difficult to be a ruler. Its not easy to be a minister.’so call difficulty for a ruler is it not merely because of the impossibility of making a suggestion that can prosper his state?

Duke Ding asked: ‘A single suggestion can ruin a state’,Is this saying possible?

Confucius answered: Probably not.As people says:There is not much pleasure in a ruler. The only one thing makes him happy is that his suggestion must be obeyed.It the suggestion is a good one, ministers obey and have good results. If the suggestion is a bad one, ministers still need to obeyit,thus, would it therefore ruin the state with one single suggestion? (this is whyminister is not easy)

13.16 葉公.:近者說,遠者來.

本章言為政在愛民.

葉公問為政之道,老師說:治區內(近者)的人民都歡悅,遠方的人都聞風而來.

:悅也;

葉公:諸梁,子高.國大夫.食邑於.僭稱[](越規自号).

Duke She asked about running his country.

Confucius said:Gladden those around you,thus attract people afar to come.

13.17 子夏莒父, .子曰:無欲速,無見小利.欲速則不達.見小利則大事不成.

本章言為政當依次以進,不宜重小利.

子夏當了莒父,問為政之道.老師說:不要求速成,不要只圖小利,求速成就不能使政教徹底完成.只看小利益就不能完成大事.

莒父:魯國邑名; 欲速:事之急切無序;

子夏:,507-,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏繼孔子之後,系統性傳授儒家經典的第一人.被後世譽為傳經鼻祖.他晚年是戰國時期开始,魏國西河一帶教學,開創的{西河學派}培育出大批經國治世良材,並成為孔儒支流法家成長的搖籃.

Zixia being the governor of Jufu asked about running his government.

Confucius said:No Haste, no aims for petties;desire for quickness is the cause for not reaching the goal. Care for the minors will lose the majors.

13.18 葉公孔子:吾黨有直躬者,其父攘羊,而子證之; 孔子:吾黨之直者異於是.為子隐,子為.直在其中矣.

本章言儒家尊親為大.

葉公告訴孔子:我鄉里間有個躬守直道的人,他的父親順手牽了別人的羊,他兒子出來證明; …孔子:我鄉里間躬行直道的人和他不一樣.父親為兒子隱藏過失,兒子為父親隱藏過失.道就在這裡面了.

直躬者:行直道之人; 攘羊:順手牽羊,偷也; :隐恶揚善之義,亦謂人道之直,何况親情.

葉公:諸梁,字子高.楚國大夫.食邑於葉.僭稱[](越規自号).

The Duke of She told Confucius:We have merited a young man because of his honesty,his father stole a goat,he born witness against him.

Confucius said:In my hometown,the concept of merit is different from yours. The son would screen for his father, The father would screen for his son.Such is the merit within fathers and sons.

13.19 樊遲問仁.:居處恭,執事敬,與人忠.雖之夷狄,不可棄也.

本章明仁者之行.

樊遲問為仁之道.老師說:個人的日常生活起居,隨時都應該很恭敬的,做事要認真謹慎.待人要盡己之心力誠懇,能這樣雖到蠻夷之地,也不可掉棄的原則啊!

居處:日常之起居也; 執事:行事也; 之往也; 夷狄:未開化之異族邦國;

樊遲:515-?樊須,字子遲,故亦作樊遲.魯人,孔子弟子,仕於季氏.

Fan Chi asked about how to achieve perfect virtue.

Confucius said:Be humble,respect your work,faithful to the public.Even in the area of primitive states,such rules must not be forsaken. 

13.20子貢問曰:何如斯可謂之士矣? 子曰:行己有恥,使於四方,不辱君命,可謂士矣; :敢問其次; :宗族稱孝焉,鄉黨稱弟焉; :敢問其次; :言必信,行必果,硜硜然小人哉!抑亦可以次矣; :今之從政何如? :!斗筲之人,何足算也!

本章明士之行.

子貢:怎樣才算是個士呢? 老師說:自己行為要能知恥,出使四方,能不沾辱君令,便可算得上是士了: …子貢:敢問次一等的是怎樣? …老師說:人贊其孝,鄉親視為兄弟. 子貢:敢問次一等的是怎樣? …老師說:說話信實,做事果斷,堅確地自守,像個小人的樣子.但也可算是次一等的了; 子貢:現在從政的怎樣? 老師說:!這些才量短淺的人,何足算數啊!

行己有恥:己之行事,能知恥而有所不; 不辱君命:為臣出事,不使君命受到沾辱; 行必果:所做必果决勇為; 硜硜然: keng硜粵讀哼,拟聲詞(敲打石頭的聲音),形容淺薄固執; 斗筲之人:斗容十升,筲容三升,器量小之謂也,比喻才短量淺之人;

子貢:端木賜衛國人.(貢本作贛),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子貢有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

Ziggong asked:What must a person possess to qualify as a perfect scholar?

Confucius said:Able to know what is shameful and what not to do all the time;when send on a mission to four corners,does not disgrace his foreign affairs,this may call as a perfect scholar.

Ziggong said:May I ask what would be the second best?

Confucius said:A man whom his clansmen praised for his filial piety,his villagers respect him as brother.

Ziggong again asked:May I ask who would rank next to that?

Confucius said: He who is trustworthy for his words,and obstinate to carry out what he determines to do, a stubborn small man maybe,yet perhaps would come next.

Ziggong asked:How about those who engaged in government today?

Confucius said:Pooh! These narrow-minded small men ,not worth being taken into account.

13.21:不得中行而與之,必也狂狷乎!狂者進取,狷者有所不為也.

本章孔子歎不得中行之人以傳其道,致有狂狷之士.

老師說:我得不到中道之人教之.以傳其道,那只有狂狷之人了.狂者志大而有積極的進取心,狷者能守義消極的有所不為.

中行:中庸也.無太過不及行得其中者,不過激,不太保守; :傳與其道也; :能進取善道而志大者; :juan/獧粵讀絹,能守義而有所節制~狷介;

Confucius said:Since I can not find student pursuing middle path to teach with, I must settle for the extremes,the ardent and the meticulous.The ardent disciples advance too fast and beyond, the meticulous ones are pretty much stationary.

13.22 :南人有言曰人而無恆,不可以作巫醫.”善夫! 恒其德,或承之羞.:不占而已矣!

本章言人不可以無恆心.

老師說:南方人有句話人如果沒有恆心,不可以做巫醫一類的事”,這真是說得好!(易經[])人如果沒有常德,羞辱的事就跟着來了”;…老師說:無恒之人,占之不準,只有不為他占卜罷了.

巫醫:巫可以與鬼神交通者.醫治疾病者; 恒其德,或承之羞,(貞吝):易經第三十二卦{恒卦}之九三爻辭.人無常德,將承受羞辱,天地不容也; 不占:指無恆德之人,不可成德成業,占之無準,不為之占也.

Confucius said: The people in the South have a saying.‘a man has no constancy of faith,cannot even make himself a witch-doctor’Well said indeed! …(Confucius quote the 32nd  Divinatory symbol of the I-ching viz .Constancy)‘Inconstant with his virtue,might incur  disgrace  for himself’

Confucius said:Such kind of a person, even the oracle is useless for him

13.23 :君子和而不同,小人同而不和.

本章以和與同,以別君子與小人.

老師說:君子與人和洽相安但不同流合烏,小人雖與同流合烏,其中亦不會和洽相安.(俗語鬼打鬼也)

:和洽相安; :同流合烏

Confucius said:Righteous people are conciliatory but do not gang-up. Mean people gang-up but are not conciliatory.

13.24子貢問曰:鄉人皆好之,何如? 子曰:未可也! …:鄉人皆惡之何如? …子曰:未可也!不如鄉人之善者好之,其不善者惡之.

本章言好惡不隨於人,必依於善與不善.

子貢:一鄉之人都喜歡他,這人怎樣? …老師說:不可以說就是好人呢! …子貢:一鄉之人都討厭他,這人怎樣? …老師說: 不可以說就是壞人呢! 不如鄉人中的善人喜歡他,壞人討厭他.(這才是真正的好人)

:喜歡; :討厭;

參閱17.13

子貢:端木賜衛國人.(貢本作贛),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子貢有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

Ziggong asked:what do you say of a person who is fond of by all  of his fellow-villagers?

Confucius said:Probably not the best character.

Ziggong asked:How about all his fellow-villagers are sick of him?

Confucius said:He is not much worse either.An ideal character is those who are fond of by the goodie and hate by all the baddies.

13.25 :君子易事而難說也,說之不以道,不說也;及其使人也,器之.小人難事而易說,說之雖不以道,說也;及其使人也,求備焉.

本章言事君子與小人之不同.

老師說:在君子手下辦事容易,但難以討他喜歡,如討他喜歡不以正道,他還是不喜歡的.君子會量才錄用.小人下辦事是很困難的,小人使用人,苛刻地求全責備.(小人要人做的,不量材而用,無論善與不善,都要替他做妥),討他喜歡卻很容易,只要不擇手段地辦妥事情.

易事:易於事奉; 器之:量才而用; 難說:難於討到喜歡; :悅也;

Confucius said:A superior person is easy to serve but hard to please.Whould you have done his favourite ting but not following a righteous way,he will not be pleased.When he choose a man for a special job,he will select the one with suitable skell for that particular operation.A mean person is hard to serve but easy to please. He is pleased that his worker can do his favourite things by hook or by crook.But he expects his worker is able to do everything.

13.26 :君子泰而不驕,小人驕而不泰.

本章以泰與驕來分別君子與小人.

老師說:君子為人安舒而傲慢. 小人為人傲慢而安舒.

:安詳舒泰; :傲慢放肆;

Confucius said:A superior person is Serenely aplomb but not arrogant.A parvenu is arrogant but not serenely aplomb.

13.27 :,,,訥近仁.

本章言此四質近乎仁了.

老師說:志強無欲,果敢堅定,樸質無華,言語遲緩.這四種人,都接近仁了.

:無欲,志強不屈; :果斷果敢; :質樸無華; :ne訥粵讀吶,語遲緩;

Confucius said:Fortitude,reslute,simplicity and slow in speech,are close to perfect virtue.

13.28 子路問曰:何如斯可謂之士矣? 子曰:切切偲偲,怡怡如也,可謂士矣.朋友切切偲偲,兄弟怡怡.

本章言士之行為態度.

子路:怎樣做才可算是士呢? …老師說:要能做到切責相處,又能和悅相處,可算是士了.朋友要切責,兄弟之間要和顏悅色.

切偲偲:互相督促,勉勵,情意懇摯; 怡怡:和悅之貌.

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked: What must a person possess to qualify as a perfect scholar?

Confucius said:A man who is earnest and encouraging, bland and loving can be so-called a superior man.Among his friends, earnest and encouraging; among his brothers, bland and loving.

13.29 :善人教民七年,亦可以即戎矣.

本章言善人為政之效.

老師說:善人為政,教化人民七年,也就可使他們經事於戰事了.

教民:教以孝弟忠信,務農講武之法; 即戎:當兵也.

Confucius said:Should a well-doer train his people for seven years,they will also be suitable for the arm force.

13.30:以不教民戰,是謂棄之.

本章言不教民習於戰陣,就如同棄了他們

:用沒訓練過的人民去作戰,是等如拋棄他們.

Confucius said:Let untrained service-men fight a war is simply to abandon them.

 

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