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顏淵 第十二篇  

2011-08-10 17:40:34|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯顏淵 第十二篇 共二十四章

 

顏淵 第十二篇 共二十四章

 

12.1 顏淵問仁.:克己復禮為仁.一日克己復禮,天下歸仁焉.為仁由己,而由人乎哉? …顏淵:請問其目;…:非禮勿視,非禮勿聽,非禮勿言,非禮勿動;…顏淵:雖不敏,請事斯語矣!

本章說明為仁之方不離禮.

顏淵問怎樣做法才是仁. 老師說:抑制自己的私慾,恢復發露室的禮德,便是仁,果真有一夫能做到這樣,那麼天下的人都會稱讚仰望着你是個仁人了.行仁的工夫在自己,而豈是靠別人的力量可以幫助的呢? …顏淵:請問實踐克己復禮的細節; …老師說:不合乎禮教的事情不看,不聽,不說,不做; ...顏淵:雖然魯鈍,願照着這話去做呢!

克己:約束,抑制私慾; 復禮:回復周室禮教; :細節:

顏淵: 521-490顏名回.字子淵,亦謂顏淵.魯國人.孔子弟子,十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好學.問一知十,孔子自認不如.回不遷怒,不貳過,貧居陋巷,(音單)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其樂.孔子稱其賢.早卒,後世尊為復聖.

Yan Yuan asked about perfect virtue.

Confucius said:restrain oneself to resume proprieties is perfect virtue.

When the day comes that everyone can restrain themselves to resume proprieties, the world will all belong to perfect virtue.The act of perfect virtue is self-initiated,how can it be performed by someone else?

Yan Yuan asked:May I ask its principals?

Confucius said:See no evil,hear no evil, say no evil and do no evil.

Yan Yuan said: Although I am not smart,yet I shall live by these words.

…Confucius defined the process of becoming human as being able to“conquer yourself and return to ritual”

12.2 仲弓問仁.:出門如見大賓,使民如承大祭,己所不欲,勿施於人.在邦恕無怨,在家無怨; …仲弓:雖不敏,請事斯語矣!

本章明仁在敬以持久,以恕待人,則私慾不生而心德全矣.

仲弓問怎樣做法才是仁; …老師說:出門如會見貴賓一樣,如在上位使用人民要像承奉重大的祭祀一樣,自己所不喜歡的,不把它加在別人身上.這樣仕於諸侯的邦國使不會招來怨恨,如作陪臣於卿大夫的家,也沒有人會怨恨; …仲弓說:雍雖然不夠勤快努力,願照着這話去做呢!

大賓:公侯之賓; 大祭:郊禘之祭;

仲弓:,仲弓,孔子細二十九歲,國人.冉雍出身貧賤,他的父亲行為不良,有人以此作為攻擊冉雍的借口.孔子弟子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).參閱6.4

Zhonggong asked about perfect virtue.

Confucius said:When leaving the  door of your house,behave as if you were going to meet a great guest.When dispatching your people for any task, you should seriously consider the task as if preparing a grand sacrifice. what you do not wish to be done unto yourself, do not do unto others. Do not bear resentment either in the stateor in the family.

Zhonggong said:Although Yong(Zhonggong) is not smart, I shall live by these words.

12.3 司馬牛問仁,:仁者,其言也訒(ren訒粵讀刃); …:其言也訒,斯謂之仁矣乎? …:為之難,言之得無訒乎?

本章說明仁者首在能忍制多言.

司馬牛問怎樣做法才是仁; …老師說:有仁德之人,他說話能有忍制; …司馬牛反問道:說話能有克制,這就是叫做仁人了麽? …老師說:,做起來是很難的,說話德能夠輕易說嗎?

司馬牛:,子牛,貴族子弟,孔子學生,性多言而躁; :忍制自己多言如見說話遲鈍一般.

Sima-niu asked about perfect virtue.

Confucius said:A person of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in making his speech.

Sima-niu Asked: cautious and slow in speech, is that all what  perfect virtures’ about?

Confucius said:That alone is already hard enough to do! Who can cease talkingwhen such is not happening? (being cautious and withholding)

12.4 司馬牛問君子,子曰:君子不憂不懼, …:不憂不懼,斯謂之君子已乎? …:內省不疚,夫何憂何懼?

本章明君子具德,無愧於心,何憂何懼.

司馬牛問怎樣做法才算是君子; …老師說:君子不會有憂慮,不會有恐懼; …司馬牛又問:憂慮不恐懼,這就叫做君子了嗎? …老師說:自我反省,無愧於心,那還有甚麼可憂慮可恐懼的呢?

內省不疚:自我反省,沒有憂愧之事在心內長住如病也.

司馬牛:,子牛,貴族子弟,孔子學生,性多言而躁.

Sima-niu asked about a moral rectitude person.

Confucius said:A moral rectitude person has neither worries nor fears.

Sima-niu said: Is that all what a moral rectitude person is? No worries and no fears?

Confucius said:If a person can  introspect and find no wron-doingss, what worry or fear could he/she find in them?

12.5司馬牛憂曰:人皆有兄弟,我獨亡! …子夏:聞之矣[死生有命,貴在天]君子敬而無失,與人恭而有禮,四海之內,皆兄弟也.君子何患乎無兄弟也?

本章言天下之人皆應敬愛如兄弟也.

司馬牛憂慮地說:人人皆有好兄弟,我獨沒有! …子夏:聽說過[生死是命中註定的,富貴是由天安排的]君子只要以敬存心,而沒有一時失敬,對人恭敬有禮貌,那麽天下之人,都是相親相愛的兄弟,君子還有甚麼憂慮沒有兄弟呢?

:即無,(司馬牛之兄是桓魋(有稱向魋)tui粤讀退參閱7.22),又有兄,有弟子頎子車(qi頎粵讀旗)皆在作亂謀反,司馬牛多次苦勸不聽故憂其都為亂而死.

司馬牛:司馬,子牛,貴族子弟,孔子學生,性多言而躁.

子夏: 507-?姓,衛國溫人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏繼孔子之後,系統性傳授儒家經典的第一人.被後世譽為傳經鼻祖.他晚年是戰國時期開始,魏國西河一帶教學,開創的{西河學派}培育出大批經國治世良材,並成為孔儒支流法家成長的搖籃.

Sima-niu said worrisomely:All men have brothers,I alone have none.

Zixia said:Shang(Zixia)learnt that,death and life are foreordained.Rich and noble are predestined. Should a person forgets not in their heart to respect others and keep out of mischief, all the time,be humble and polite,thence,within the four-seas,brotherhoods but all! With such kind of a person, how can he worry having no brothers?

12.6 子張問明,:浸潤之譖(zen粵讀義同),膚受之愬(su愬粵讀素,義同訴),不行焉.可謂明也已矣!浸潤之譖,膚受之愬,不行焉,可謂遠也已矣!

本章論人之明遠之道.

子張:怎樣才算能明察是非呢? …老師說:如水樣逐漸漫漫浸透不實的誣言,又像肌膚上切身之痛一般的不實告訴,(這些)對你都行不通,這就是明了. 如水樣逐漸漫漫浸透不實的誣言,又像肌膚上切身之痛一般的不實告訴,在你的面前行不通,這就能不囿(you囿粵讀右義局限于)於目前有遠見的了.

浸潤之譖:不實之言是為譖,譖言如水浸,逐漸浸透之也; 膚受之愬:愬同訴,不實之告訴猶如切膚之損,易於信以為眞; :是非之明察也: :能深遠地洞燭是非也.

子張:顓孫,孔子弟子,孔子48,國人,後世有子張之儒.參閱

11.14

Zizhang asked about the significance of wisdom.

Confucius said:In the midst of permeation of instigators’ incendiaries,although afflicted you personally yet,you can still behave dispassionately accordingly to your own judgenebt,may call this is wisdom.

Again,in the midst of permeation of instigators’ incendiaries,afflicted you personally and yet,you can still behave dispassionately accordingly to your own judgenebt,this may call far-sighted.

12.7 子貢問政,子曰:足食,足兵,民信之矣; …子貢:不得已而去,於斯三者何先?…:去兵;…子貢:必不得已而去,於斯二者何先?…:去食,自古皆有死,民無信不立.

本章言為政當貴信也.

子貢問為政之道,老師說:有充足的民食,有充足的武備,人民自然就信賴於政府了;…子貢:倘在不得已情形下必須去掉一,應該去掉那一項先? …老師說:去掉兵備; …子貢又問: 在不得已情形下還要再去掉一,該去掉那一項呢? …老師說:去掉儲備糧食,自古以來,人都要死,政府若失信於民則甚麽都不能建立了.

足食,足兵:倉廪充實,武備修整; 民無信不立:治國不可失去人民的信賴;

子貢:端木,國人.(貢本作贛).孔子弟子,孔子31歲利口巧辯,善外交孔門十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於齊.

Zigong asked about Politic strategy.

Confucius said:Sufficient food, sufficient arm-force,sufficient trust by the people to their ruler.

Zigong asked:If a must to give up one,which of the three should go first?

Confucius said:Let arm-force fo first!

Zigong asked:If a must to forsake one of the remaining two,which one should go?

Confucius said:Let go with the food! A hitherto fact of death is unavoidable.A state can not be sustained without the trust by its people.

12.8 棘子成(ji粤讀):君子質而已矣,何以文為? …子貢:惜乎!夫子之說君子也,駟不及舌,文猶質也,質猶文也.虎豹之鞟,猶犬羊之鞟.

本章說明文和質兩者如偏廢,即非君子.

棘子成:君子只要有善良的本質罷了,何必定要有詩書禮樂的文采呢? …子貢:可惜啊! 夫子這樣解釋君子! 師說,話從舌頭上說出來了,駟馬的快車也追趕不回來.君子的文和質是一體的.文如同質,質如同文.缼一不可.這好比虎豹的皮去掉了采毛,又何異於犬羊去掉了本無采毛的皮呢?

棘子成:ji粤讀,大夫; 夫子:棘子成,當時稱大夫皆曰夫子; 駟不及舌:謂人之言一出舌,駟馬不能追矣; 虎豹之鞟猶犬羊之鞟(kuo粵讀,去了毛的獸皮):虎豹之皮去掉文采無異於沒有文采的羊犬之皮了;

子貢: 衛國人.(貢本作贛),姓端木名賜.孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於齊.

Ji Zicheng said:A good person requires merely a good nature. Why must he need to be furnished with ornmental literacy? What accomplishment will that do for him?

Zigong said: Alas! How can master(Ji Zicheng)speak like that of a good person.Our master said,a speed of of four  horses in total is not as fast as a slip of tongue (a word spoken cannot be overtaken ).Literacy is temperament and vice versa.Without its fur,the skin of  a tiger or a leopard is like that of a dog or goat.

12.9哀公問於有若:年饑,用不足,如之何? …有若對曰:盍徹乎? …:二吾猶不足,如之何其徹也? …對曰:百姓足,君孰與不足? 百姓不足, 君孰與足?

本章申言民富則國富之道.

魯哀公有若:年成歉收,國庫支用不夠,怎樣辦呢? …有若:何不徵收十分之一的稅收呢? …哀公:徵十分之二的稅,我還感到不夠用,怎麽能只收十分之一呢? …有若:百姓富足了,君怎麽會不富足? 百姓不富足, 君怎麽會富足?

:何不; :田賦徵收所得十分之一的稅(代之税制見孟子滕文公上); :加倍,取十分之二也; :怎麼,(此乃疑問副詞)

魯哀公: ?-468,為春秋諸侯國國君主之一,國第二十六任君主.他為魯定公兒子,承襲魯定公擔任國君主,西元前494-468年在位共27.

有若:,505518-?,孔子晚年弟子,魯國人.子有,後被尊稱為有子.他勤奮好學,能較全面深刻地理解孔子的學說猶其言行仁當以孝悌為本.參閱1.2

Duke Ai asked You Rou:A year dearth of food,expenditures running out,what should be done?

You rou replied: Why not levy 10% tax on people?

Duke Ai sadi:With 20% ,still I find insufficient,how can it be so?

You Rou said:When the state  suffice its people, will the prince be alone live insufficient? If the people are all live insufficient, can the prince be alone live in plentiful.

12.10 子張問崇德辨惑. 子曰:主忠信, 徙議;崇德也.愛之欲其生,惡之欲其死,旣欲其生,又欲其死,是惑也.{誠不以富,亦祇以異}

本章釋崇德辨惑之義.

子張:怎樣才是崇德辨惑; …老師說:存心主於忠信,使自己行為變善,這就是崇德,你喜愛的人就要他長生,你厭惡的人就要他早死,旣要他生,又要他死,這就是惑了.(此意對人只依自己心之愛惠,不以是非分別也),{最後兩句見下文}

崇德:行道有得於心為德,即崇高的品德也; 辨惑:心有所昏昧不明,辨別疑惑使事理分明也; 主忠信:內心以忠信為主; 徙義:遷己欲以從善也; 誠不以富,亦祇以異:此二句乃詩經小雅我行其野之末二句,此詩敍一遠嫁而被遺棄的女子對她丈夫喜新厭舊的憤怒.然此兩句的意思是:誠不因為她富足,因你厭舊變了心與本章毫無相關之意義,故有人認為是別章的文句而誤置於此章也.

子張:顓孫,孔子弟子. 孔子48,國人.後世傳有{子張之儒}.

Zizhang asked how to advocate virtue and clarify delusion.

Confucius said:Persist on faithfulness and honesty as primary principals,follow righteousness,your virtue will therefore excel.You like a person and wish him/her to live.You hate a person and wish him/her to die.To wish someone both to live and to dieis a case of delusion.

Quote from poetry

‘Integrity can not be replaced by wealth.Your hatred is due to you have changed’

Unquote…(some scholars suggested that these last 2 phrases were irrelevant as they were wrongly included in this chapter)

12.11齊景公問政於孔子.孔子對曰:君君,臣臣,父父,子子; …公曰:善哉!信如君不君,臣不臣,父不父,子不子,雖有粟,吾得而食諸?

本章論為政當人倫為本.

齊景公孔子為政的道理.孔子:君應盡為君之道,臣應盡為臣之道,父應盡為父之道,子應盡為子之道; …景公:好極了!眞的如君不盡君道, 臣不盡臣道,父不盡父道,子不盡子道,雖有積蓄的米糧,我能得安然地喫它嗎?

齊景公:杵臼.魯昭公末年,孔子針對齊國當時政治上的混亂情况而言; :官祿; :之乎;

Duke Jing of Qi asked Confucius how to run a state properly.

Confucius said:Let ruler acts like a ruler; ministers act like ministers,fathers act like fathers and sons act like sons.

 The Duke sighed: Goodness gracious! How true indeed if the ruler is not like a ruler, ministers not ministers, fathers not fathers and sons not sons,although meals are there, do I have appetite to eat it in peace?

12.12 :言可以折獄者,也與?…子路無宿諾.

本章言子路斷是非,故實踐諾言毫不優柔寡斷.

老師說:憑着片面之辭便能判案的,只有子路了吧? 子路答應了人的事,沒有久留着不踐諾言的.

片片言:片面之辭; 折獄:斷獄; 宿諾:急於踐言,有諾不宿/留待明日之謂也;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Confucius said:It is Zhong You alone who can bring in a verdict by listening only partially on a lawsuit. He does not have overnight promises leave unfulfilled.

12.13 :聽訟,吾猶人也,必也使無訟乎!

本章述孔子以德教化在前,使民無訟為貴.

老師說:審判訴訟案件,我和別人一樣(辨出是非),必也要使人民知禮明理,双方不存訟意.

聽訟:審判訴訟案件; 吾猶人也:我和別人相同;

Confucius said:About litigation,my principle is like everybody else,to eliminate disputes from the start(by education).

Connotation:Prevention is better than cure

12.14 子張問政.子曰:居之無倦,行之以忠.

本章孔子為政的態度.

子張問為政之道.老師說:守在職位上不懈怠,始終如一處理公務,盡忠職守.

居之:守在職位上; 無倦:不怠慢,始終如一;

子張:顓孫,孔子弟子.孔子48.陳國人,孔子曾說過師也過(11.14),師也辟(11.16);後世有子張之儒派.

Zizhang asked how to act a good politician.

Confucius said:be persistent on your position and not to be supine. Be consistently loyal.

12.15 :博學於文,約之以禮,亦可以弗畔矣乎?

本章已見雍也篇6.25

Confucius said:An erudite person who can restrain in accordance with rite,would not trespass.

12.16:君子成人之美,不成人之惡.小人反是.

本章分別君子與小人存心之不同.

老師說:君子成全別人的好事,不幫助別人作壞事.小人則和這相反.

成人之美:成全人的好事;

Confucius said:A person of noble character offers help to accomplish a good deed but would never act as an evil deed accomplice.A villain would do the contrary.   

12.17季康子問政於孔子.孔子對曰:政者,正也.子帥以正,孰敢不正?

本章言為政當以正道.

季康子孔子怎樣為政.孔子:政的意義,就是正道.您以正道領導臣民,誰敢不以正道做事呢?

政者正也:正猶言正道,政治乃眾人之事,必以正道; :领導者;

季康子: 複姓季孫.謚曰.?-468國大夫正卿事魯哀公,此時國公室衰弱.季孫族系之名乃公子季友之後.亦稱為季氏.季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣. {歷史背景}季康子季孫肥,春秋時期國的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.諡康.史稱季康子.季孫肥[]字則為尊稱,所以說季孫並不是氏稱,季孫某僅限於對宗主的稱謂而已,宗族一般成員只能稱季某.季孫肥季氏,而非季孫氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏為首的三桓強盛,季氏宗主季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣.再敍歷史上此時孔子門生的政迹:魯定公十五年,公薨,哀公蔣.當時,季桓子為首的{三桓}甚為強盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是為季康子.當時的,,國兩個大國的夾縫裏生存,處境不是很好.{三桓}之間的關係也不是很融洽,季康子的專權,讓其它二桓:叔孫氏,孟氏很不滿.哀公七年(486),(夫差)無禮,強逼國貢獻百牢(一百條牢[肉牛];禮制定各諸侯貢禮不能超過十二牢),國被迫貢獻,繼而國太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子來朝見他,雖然國不如國強,康子還是拒絕了,似乎很有氣節,實則他覺得國雖大卻難成氣候,最終仍是無法稱霸的,故無懼於他.哀公十一年(482),國入侵,叔孫,孟氏季氏專權,不肯聽從季康子的號令將人攔在國土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,擊退了,接著會同國在艾陵大敗,史稱艾陵之戰.然而此戰之後,季康子卻加緊戰備,以防國再來.哀公十一年,季康子使公華,公賓,公林以幣(古代贈送賓客或用于祭祀的束帛.幣帛)來迎接孔子回國.至此,{三桓}逐出國的孔子終於得以回,並完成他晚年修書的事業.可以說,季康子間接地成全了孔夫子作為聖人的大業.哀公十二年,季康子[田賦],改革稅賦,進一步加速禮崩樂壞的過程,這當然是孔子不願意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.魯定公時期,孔子是與三桓鬥爭的重要權臣,但是結果還是被強大的三桓打敗,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.當年(469),季康子,叔孫文子,孟武伯跟隨哀公後庸(越王勾踐)平陽開會,季康子會中討論問題談到子貢.季康子:假如現在子貢在這裏,我們根本不會與蠻夷(越國)訂這種盟約.孟武伯:的確不錯,那為什麼不叫子貢? 季康子:我馬上就叫子貢;孫叔文子:即使是到了以後,也不要忘記今天的說話(故此左氏春秋亦有記載此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.魯哀公雖然親自弔唁,然所行的卻是低一級不完備的禮節.

Ji Kangzi asked Confucius about politic.

Confucius said:Politic is Proper deed.If you give a proper upright leadership,who would dare to walk crooked and improperly?

12.18 季康子患盗.問於孔子.孔子對曰:苟子之不欲雖賞之不竊.

本章孔子述上者不貪,可遏止盜風.

季康子憂慮國內盗賊多,問於孔子應該怎麽辦,孔子:如果您自己不貪欲,就算獎賞人民去行竊,人亦知耻不為的.

: 如果; 不欲:無貪欲之心;

季康子: 複姓季孫.謚曰.?-468國大夫正卿事魯哀公,此時國公室衰弱.季孫族系之名乃公子季友之後.亦稱為季氏.季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣. {歷史背景}季康子季孫肥,春秋時期國的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.諡康.史稱季康子.季孫肥[]字則為尊稱,所以說季孫並不是氏稱,季孫某僅限於對宗主的稱謂而已,宗族一般成員只能稱季某.季孫肥季氏,而非季孫氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏為首的三桓強盛,季氏宗主季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣.再敍歷史上此時孔子門生的政迹:魯定公十五年,公薨,哀公蔣.當時,季桓子為首的{三桓}甚為強盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是為季康子.當時的,,國兩個大國的夾縫裏生存,處境不是很好.{三桓}之間的關係也不是很融洽,季康子的專權,讓其它二桓:叔孫氏,孟氏很不滿.哀公七年(486),(夫差)無禮,強逼國貢獻百牢(一百條牢[肉牛];禮制定各諸侯貢禮不能超過十二牢),國被迫貢獻,繼而國太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子來朝見他,雖然國不如國強,康子還是拒絕了,似乎很有氣節,實則他覺得國雖大卻難成氣候,最終仍是無法稱霸的,故無懼於他.哀公十一年(482),國入侵,叔孫,孟氏季氏專權,不肯聽從季康子的號令將人攔在國土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,擊退了,接著會同國在艾陵大敗,史稱艾陵之戰.然而此戰之後,季康子卻加緊戰備,以防國再來.哀公十一年,季康子使公華,公賓,公林以幣(古代贈送賓客或用于祭祀的束帛.幣帛)來迎接孔子回國.至此,{三桓}逐出國的孔子終於得以回,並完成他晚年修書的事業.可以說,季康子間接地成全了孔夫子作為聖人的大業.哀公十二年,季康子[田賦],改革稅賦,進一步加速禮崩樂壞的過程,這當然是孔子不願意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.魯定公時期,孔子是與三桓鬥爭的重要權臣,但是結果還是被強大的三桓打敗,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.當年(469),季康子,叔孫文子,孟武伯跟隨哀公後庸(越王勾踐)平陽開會,季康子會中討論問題談到子貢.季康子:假如現在子貢在這裏,我們根本不會與蠻夷(越國)訂這種盟約.孟武伯:的確不錯,那為什麼不叫子貢? 季康子:我馬上就叫子貢;孫叔文子:即使是到了以後,也不要忘記今天的說話(故此左氏春秋亦有記載此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.魯哀公雖然親自弔唁,然所行的卻是低一級不完備的禮節.

Ji Kangzi was worrisome of thieves therefore consulted with Confucius.

Confucius responded:If there were no impetus for desirousness,even with an award for stealing,no one would care for it.

12.19 季康子問政於孔子:如殺無道,以就有道,何如? …孔子對曰:子為政,焉用殺?子欲善而民善矣.君子之德風,小人之德草.草上之風,必偃.

本章孔子言為政不在刑殺,在上者以德教,則民化之矣.

季康子孔子為政之道說:如殺掉無道的壞人,以成就有道的善人,可不可以呢?…孔子:您主管政治,何必要用殺人的辦法呢?您若行善道,百姓也隨着向善了.在上位的德行好比風,庶民好比草,風吹到草上,草必跟隨風向而倒.

:成就; :何也; 君子:此章指在位者; 小人:此章指庶民也; :仆也;

季康子:複姓季孫.謚曰.?-468國大夫正卿事魯哀公,此時國公室衰弱.季孫族系之名乃公子季友之後.亦稱為季氏.季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣. {歷史背景}季康子季孫肥,春秋時期國的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.諡康.史稱季康子.季孫肥[]字則為尊稱,所以說季孫並不是氏稱,季孫某僅限於對宗主的稱謂而已,宗族一般成員只能稱季某.季孫肥季氏,而非季孫氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏為首的三桓強盛,季氏宗主季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣.再敍歷史上此時孔子門生的政迹:魯定公十五年,公薨,哀公蔣.當時,季桓子為首的{三桓}甚為強盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是為季康子.當時的,,國兩個大國的夾縫裏生存,處境不是很好.{三桓}之間的關係也不是很融洽,季康子的專權,讓其它二桓:叔孫氏,孟氏很不滿.哀公七年(486),(夫差)無禮,強逼國貢獻百牢(一百條牢[肉牛];禮制定各諸侯貢禮不能超過十二牢),國被迫貢獻,繼而國太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子來朝見他,雖然國不如國強,康子還是拒絕了,似乎很有氣節,實則他覺得國雖大卻難成氣候,最終仍是無法稱霸的,故無懼於他.哀公十一年(482),國入侵,叔孫,孟氏季氏專權,不肯聽從季康子的號令將人攔在國土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,擊退了,接著會同國在艾陵大敗,史稱艾陵之戰.然而此戰之後,季康子卻加緊戰備,以防國再來.哀公十一年,季康子使公華,公賓,公林以幣(古代贈送賓客或用于祭祀的束帛.幣帛)來迎接孔子回國.至此,{三桓}逐出國的孔子終於得以回,並完成他晚年修書的事業.可以說,季康子間接地成全了孔夫子作為聖人的大業.哀公十二年,季康子[田賦],改革稅賦,進一步加速禮崩樂壞的過程,這當然是孔子不願意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.魯定公時期,孔子是與三桓鬥爭的重要權臣,但是結果還是被強大的三桓打敗,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.當年(469),季康子,叔孫文子,孟武伯跟隨哀公後庸(越王勾踐)平陽開會,季康子會中討論問題談到子貢.季康子:假如現在子貢在這裏,我們根本不會與蠻夷(越國)訂這種盟約.孟武伯:的確不錯,那為什麼不叫子貢? 季康子:我馬上就叫子貢;孫叔文子:即使是到了以後,也不要忘記今天的說話(故此左氏春秋亦有記載此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.魯哀公雖然親自弔唁,然所行的卻是低一級不完備的禮節.

Ji Kangzi asked Confucius about the way to govern: What do think about killing all the baddies so as to help all the goodie?

Confucius responded: As for Master’s (Ji)government,who needs to use killing at all? Master(Ji)desires to be kind, people will act kind.The conduct of a noble person is like the wind. The conduct of the Hoi Polloi is like the long grass below the wind.Whichever direction the wind blows, the grass will bend to its direction.

12.20 子張:仕何如斯可謂之達矣? …子曰:何哉?爾所謂達者; …子張對曰:在邦必聞,在家必聞; …子曰:是聞也非達也.夫達也者,質直而好義,察言而觀色,慮而下人,在邦必達,在家必達.夫聞也者,色取仁而行違,居之不疑,在邦必聞,在家必聞.

本章言士當求表裡一致,名實相符.非徒聞名也.

子張:一個士怎樣才算得是達到使眾人信服呢? …老師反問:你所指的達到眾人信服,是以何標準呢? …子張:在諸侯之國必然要聞名譽,在鄉人夫之家也要聞名譽; …老師說:那是名譽,不是達眾之信服.所謂達者,要內主忠信的質直而外好義行,察人之意,觀人之色.謙卑自守,這樣他在諸侯之國內,定能行無不得而通達,或在鄉大夫之家內,也定能行無不得而通達.所謂聞名的人,只是表面裝着求仁的樣子,而行則相違背,自以為是,安於虛偽,在國有名譽,在家也有名譽.

:讓眾人信服; :名譽著聞也; :用心委曲也.下人:言柔順卑謙也; 色取仁而行違:偽裝仁義,實背道而行; 居之不疑:安於虛偽,自以為是;

子張: 顓孫,孔子弟子.孔子48.陳國人,孔子曾說過師也過(11.14),師也辟(11.16);後世有子張之儒.

Zizhang asked:When may a scholar reach eminency?

Confucius asked:What is your standard of eminence”

Zizhang said:His name is popular throughout the state,as well as within his family.

The master said:that is famous, not eminent.An eminent person is frank and righteous.that person would examine people’s words and observe their expressions.that person would be humble,considerate and epathic.Such a person will be eminent in the state, and eminent in the family.A famous person wears a mask of righteousness, belying his/her contrary behaviour. Such people rest in this character without doubts about themselves. they will be famous in the state as well as in their families.  

12.21 樊遲徒遊於舞雩(yu粤讀儒)之下,:敢問崇德,脩慝(脩同修,te粵讀剔),辨惑;…:善哉問! 先事後得,非崇德與? 攻其惡而無攻人之惡,非脩慝與?一朝之忿,忘其身以及其親,非惑與?

本章言修身之道.

樊遲孔子舞雩(yu粤讀儒):敢問老師崇尚品德,袪除邪惡之慾念,辨迷惑的具體辦法;…老師說:問得好極了,先盡力做事而不去計較收獲,這不是崇尚品德麼?攻治自己過失,不攻擊別人的過失,這不是祛除自己惡念的好方法麼?一旦發怒,忘了自身的安危,忘記了會危害到自己的親屬,這不是迷惑麼?

舞雩之下:(yu粤讀儒)舞雩地名,今山西.求雨之祭壇設於此,有樹木可作遊憩; 脩慝:(脩同修,te粵讀剔)治去惡欲匿於心者;

樊遲:515-?,子遲,故亦作樊遲.國人,孔子弟子,仕於季氏.

While touring the Wuyu altar with the master, Fan Chi asked:May I ask how to advocate virtue,to remove hidden wickedness,and clarify delusions?

The master said:Profound questions indeed! Set the priority on the task above its reward,is it not an advocate of virtue? Assail oneself own evil and not the evils of others, will it not remove the hidden wickedness? A flurry of anger thus forget his safety as well as the safety of his family, is it not a case of delusion?

12.22 樊遲問仁.:愛人; …問知; …子曰:知人; …樊遲未達, 子曰:擧直錯諸枉,能使枉者直; …樊遲退,子夏:鄉也,吾見於夫子而問知,子曰: 擧直錯諸枉,能使枉者直,何謂也? …子夏:富哉言乎!有天下,選於眾,皐陶,不仁者遠矣.有天下.選於眾,伊尹,不仁者遠矣.

本章闡明仁與智的意義.

樊遲問怎樣才算是仁. 老師說:愛護眾人; …又問怎樣才算是智; …老師說:能知曉人的好壞便算是智了; …樊遲聽了還不明白.老師說:擧用正直的人,加在斜曲的人上面,能使斜曲的人也正直了; …樊遲退出了.看見了子夏,:剛才我問老師怎樣才算智,老師說: 擧用正直的人,加在斜曲的人上面,能使斜曲的人也正直了這是甚麽意思? …子夏:這話中涵義多豐富啊! 有了天下,在眾人之中選皐陶,那些不仁的人就遷離了.有了天下,在眾人之中選用了伊尹,那些不仁的人,也就遠離了.

:同智; 未達:未明白; :歪斜; :同嚮,指以前也; 皐陶:之賢臣(任判官),其倡言智者則知人也; 伊尹:商湯之賢相;

:虞舜:.初居畎畝.有天下於故稱虞舜.(虞故城在今山西省,平陸縣東北,周武王於此;春秋時期晉侯借道於虞以滅虢,還師又滅虞),[]:古虞帝,姓姚,初居畎畝之中,能曲盡孝道.所居民多隨之,唐堯舉使攝政,乃除四凶[四凶族:渾敦(驩兜),窮奇(共工),檮杌(),饕餮(三苗).皆被舜所流放],虞舜舉八元八愷,(:善也,:和也,義八文職八武職)天下大治,攝政三十年,受禪即帝位.有天之號曰有虞氏.,民稱其號曰.史稱虞舜.又稱重華.後南巡崩於蒼梧之野.在帝位十八年,子商均不肖,傳位於禹.

有臣五人:,,(xie粵讀音薛;契丹(Khitan)有誤讀音者或屬約定俗成也,皐陶,伯益;參閱8.20

皐陶:皋陶(皋俗作皐,)又名咎繇,(咎繇粵讀夠就),左傳文十八年八凱之中有註謂皋陶者即青陽氏之裔,大業之子,封於;皐陶乃助虞舜五賢臣之一.造律立獄.舜典,

:成湯,(xie粤讀薛)之後裔,開國之主..又名天乙,初居(安徽,bo粵讀博)夏桀無道,伐之.南巢,得天下號國,故又稱商湯.在位三十年崩.

伊尹:之賢相,.耕於有莘氏之野.三以幣聘之.始往就.,, 遂得天下.伊尹之功為多.尊之為阿衡.,其孫太甲無道,伊尹放之於.三年太甲悔過,復歸於.伊尹百歲卒.沃丁葬以天子之禮.孟子稱之聖之任者.

樊遲:515-?樊須,字子遲,故亦作樊遲.魯人,孔子弟子,仕於季氏.

子夏:507-?姓卜名商,,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏繼孔子之後,系統性傳授儒家經典的第一人.被後世譽為傳經鼻祖.他晚年是戰國時期开始,魏國西河一帶教學,開創的{西河學派}培育出大批經國治世良材,並成為孔儒支流法家成長的搖籃.

Fan Chi asked about benevolence.

Confucius said: Love all people!

Fan Chi asked:What is philosophy?

Confucius said:Understand people!

Fan Chi could not get it.The master went on to say: Promote the upright and place them above the crooked ones,the crooked can be made to become upright.

Fan Chi withdrew ,met Zixia and said:I just had an interview with our master,I asked about philosophy. The master said to understand people. He said to promote the upright ,place them above the crooked,the crooked can be made upright, what did he mean by that?

Zixia said:How profound is his saying indeed! When Shun was in possession of the world,he chose Gao Yao from the many,promoted him,and men that were in lack of virtue all gone far away.When Tang was in possession of the world, he chose Yi Yin from the many, promoted him, and men that were in lack of virtue all gone far away.

12.23子貢問友.:忠告而善道之.不可則止.毋自辱焉.

本章論交友之道.

子貢問交友之道.老師說:朋友有過失,要盡己之心直告於他.再善引導他.朋友如不接受則要立即停止,不要自討沒趣.

忠告:友有過,盡己心而告之,使之遷善; 善道:引導向善也;

子貢:端木.國人.(貢本作贛),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子貢有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

Zigong asked about friendship.

Confucius said:Faithfully admonish with kind guidance.Should the effort be futile. Cease before getting abusive remarks.

12.24曾子:君子以文會友,以友輔仁.

本章說交友之義.

曾子:君子以詩書禮樂結交朋友,以朋友互相輔助共進於仁德.

:詩書禮樂; 輔仁:切磋琢,輔助共進於仁德也.

曾子:子輿505-436武城,曾點之子.父子皆為孔子弟子.曾子事親至孝.悟聖道一貫之旨.以其學傳子思(孔子孫兒),後世稱為宗聖.作曾子十八篇.孔子孫兒孔伋子思,子思之儒孔伋曾子之孝道矣.

Zengzi said:A superior person makes friends with academic ingredient.With friendship,he enhances benevolence.

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