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先進 第十一篇  

2011-08-11 00:13:43|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

加碼德筆記【論語淺譯先進 第十一篇 共二十五章

 

先進 第十一篇 共二十五章

 

11.1 :先進於禮樂,野人也.後進於禮樂,君子也.如用之,則吾從先進.

本章言禮樂,當遵從前輩.

老師說:先進的一輩所制作的禮樂,重樸質,好比鄉野之人, 後進一輩所制作的禮樂,重文節好比君子人(城市人).如用之朝廷宗廟之上,我還是遵從先進的一輩制作的禮樂.

先進:前輩之人; 野人:質勝於文,鄉村郊野之人; 後進:後輩之人; 君子:文勝於質,城邑之人.

Confucius said:Predecessors’rite and music were found upon human nature primitively simple and na?ve.Posterity developed the rite and music favouring the fond of arts and literacy.If to choose between them, I would prefer Predecessors’.

Connotation:natural truthfulness prevailed fancy phraseology

11.2 :從我於陳蔡者,皆不及門也; …德行:顏淵,閔子騫,冉伯牛,仲弓,言語:宰我,子貢.政事:冉有,季路.文學:子游,子夏.

本章孔子述孔門四科十位門徒.分別其所長.

老師說:以前跟隨在陳蔡的,此時都不在我門下了; …在德行方面,有顏淵,閔子騫,冉伯牛,仲弓.在言語方面有: 宰我,子貢.在政事方面有:冉有,季路.在文學方面有:子游,子夏.

陳蔡:二國名.孔子曾受困於陳蔡之間,路阻糧絕; 不及門:言此時皆不在門下; 閔子騫:姓閔名損,

子騫.孔子弟子; 言語:外交上的辭令,善於應對; 文學:指詩書禮樂,典章制度;

顏淵: 521-490.子淵,亦謂顏淵.國人.孔子十哲之一.敏而好學.問一知十,孔子自認不如.回不遷怒,不貳過,貧居陋巷,(音單)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其樂.孔子稱其賢.早卒,後世尊為復聖.

閔子騫: 姓閔名損,字子騫.孔子弟子.

冉伯牛:,.伯牛,以德行著.孔子十哲之一.孔子,伯牛中都.伯牛病重,老師去慰問,從窗子外握着他的手歎道:這人將要喪失了,這真是命啊! 這樣的人為何有這種病!…6.8

仲弓:姓冉名雍,字仲弓,比孔子細二十九歲,魯國人.冉雍出身貧賤,他的父親行為不良,有人以此作為攻擊冉雍的藉口.孔子駁斥說,一頭耕牛,也可以生出獻祭用的小牛來;父親不好,兒子不一定也不好.冉雍氣量寬宏,沈默厚重,深得孔子的器重,認為冉雍具有人君的容度,可以做地方長官.冉雍參加做過季氏見雍也第六章

冉有:522-489,字子有,亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子,有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰.參閱11.15

季路.國卞人,子路一字季路,孔子弟子.性鄙而好勇.事親孝.衛大夫孔悝(kui粵讀灰),以為邑宰,時出公在位,孔悝母伯姬與豎良夫謀立.太子(kuai粤讀拐)(gui粵讀貴)廹孔悝與蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公奔.子路入,見蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

宰我:宰名予,字子我,也稱宰我,魯國人.宰予口齒伶俐,能說善辯,被列為孔門四科十哲(言語科)之一.孔子常派遣他出使各國,使于齊”,“使于楚.宰予遇事有自己的主見.

子貢.國人.(貢本作贛),姓端木名賜.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於齊.

子游: 511-?姓言名偃,字子游,吴国人..仕魯為武城宰特習於禮,尤於文學著.

子夏:507-?姓卜名商,衛國溫人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏繼孔子之後,系統性傳授儒家經典的第一人.被後世譽為傳經鼻祖.他晚年是戰國時期開始,魏國西河一帶教學,開創的{西河學派}培育出大批經國治世良材,並成為孔儒支流法家成長的搖籃.

Confucius said:Those who were with me in Chen and Cai, did not appear at my door anymore.

Distinguished for their virtue, there were Yan Yuan,Min Ziqian,Ran Boniu,and Zhong Gong;for ability in speech, there were:Zai Wo,and Zigong;for administrative talents: Ran You and Zilu;for literacy outstandings:Ziyou and Zixia.

11.3 :,非助我者也,於吾言無所不說.

本章述孔子自修的態度.

老師說:回啊, 不是助益於我的人啊,對我所講述的,沒有不心领神會而感到喜悅的.

:助益也; :同悅,聞言即解,心感喜悅.

:521-490顏名回.字子淵,亦謂顏淵.魯國人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).敏而好學.問一知十,孔子自認不如.回不遷怒,不貳過,貧居陋巷,(音單)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其樂.孔子稱其賢.早卒,後世尊為復聖.

Confucius said: I get no help from Hui,no words I say but happily accepted by him.

11.4:孝哉,閔子騫.人不間於其父母昆弟之言

本章孔子贊美閔子騫之孝行.

老師說:克盡孝道的閔子騫,他的父母兄弟都說他孝,人們聽了沒有異議.

:非議也; 閔子騫:傳說子騫母死父更娶及再生二子.後母冬天薄()待子騫.父悉而將出後母.子騫勸曰:母在一子寒,母去三子單.父母皆感動.後母羞愧,改及一家孝友,相處無間.

閔子騫:,子騫.孔子弟子.

Confucius said:Filial pious indeed,Min Ziqian! People can say nothing of him different from the praises by his parents and stepbrothers.

11.5 南容三復白圭,孔子以其兄之子妻之.

本章述南容修身之道.(參閱5.2)

南容一日三次復誦吟白圭之詩.孔子將他姪女兒嫁給了他.

南容:,子容.孔子弟子.孔子兄之壻.

三復:一日三次復誦; 白圭:詩經大雅抑之篇名,詩意在勉人慎言;

白圭:,古代帝王,貴族擧行朝聘,祭祀,喪葬時所用的玉制禮器,扁長條形,上尖下方,{詩經.大雅.}:白圭之玷,尚可磨也. dian玷粵讀店:玉上的小斑點.

Nan Rong repeatedly recited frequently the poems of ‘The White Gui’: A flaw in the white scepter stone can be ground away.A flaw in a speech would stay forever.

Confucius married Nan Rong his elder brother’s daughter. 

11.6季康子:弟子孰為好學?孔子對曰:者好學,不幸短命死矣,今也則亡.

本章述顏回之好學.參閱6.2魯哀公問.

季康子問道:你的弟子中,誰最好學呢? …孔子:顏回這個人最好學,不幸他命短已死了,現在沒有像他這樣好學的人了.

季康子: 複姓季孫.謚曰.?-468國大夫正卿事魯哀公,此時國公室衰弱.季孫族系之名乃公子季友之後.亦稱為季氏.季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣. {歷史背景}季康子季孫肥,春秋時期國的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.諡康.史稱季康子.季孫肥[]字則為尊稱,所以說季孫並不是氏稱,季孫某僅限於對宗主的稱謂而已,宗族一般成員只能稱季某.季孫肥季氏,而非季孫氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏為首的三桓強盛,季氏宗主季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣.再敍歷史上此時孔子門生的政迹:魯定公十五年,公薨,哀公蔣.當時,季桓子為首的{三桓}甚為強盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是為季康子.當時的,,國兩個大國的夾縫裏生存,處境不是很好.{三桓}之間的關係也不是很融洽,季康子的專權,讓其它二桓:叔孫氏,孟氏很不滿.哀公七年(486),(夫差)無禮,強逼國貢獻百牢(一百條牢[肉牛];禮制定各諸侯貢禮不能超過十二牢),國被迫貢獻,繼而國太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子來朝見他,雖然國不如國強,康子還是拒絕了,似乎很有氣節,實則他覺得國雖大卻難成氣候,最終仍是無法稱霸的,故無懼於他.哀公十一年(482),國入侵,叔孫,孟氏季氏專權,不肯聽從季康子的號令將人攔在國土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,擊退了,接著會同國在艾陵大敗,史稱艾陵之戰.然而此戰之後,季康子卻加緊戰備,以防國再來.哀公十一年,季康子使公華,公賓,公林以幣(古代贈送賓客或用于祭祀的束帛.幣帛)來迎接孔子回國.至此,{三桓}逐出國的孔子終於得以回,並完成他晚年修書的事業.可以說,季康子間接地成全了孔夫子作為聖人的大業.哀公十二年,季康子[田賦],改革稅賦,進一步加速禮崩樂壞的過程,這當然是孔子不願意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.魯定公時期,孔子是與三桓鬥爭的重要權臣,但是結果還是被強大的三桓打敗,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.當年(469),季康子,叔孫文子,孟武伯跟隨哀公後庸(越王勾踐)平陽開會,季康子會中討論問題談到子貢.季康子:假如現在子貢在這裏,我們根本不會與蠻夷(越國)訂這種盟約.孟武伯:的確不錯,那為什麼不叫子貢? 季康子:我馬上就叫子貢;孫叔文子:即使是到了以後,也不要忘記今天的說話(故此左氏春秋亦有記載此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.魯哀公雖然親自弔唁,然所行的卻是低一級不完備的禮節.

顏回:521-490姓顏名回.字子淵,亦稱顏淵.孔子弟子.孔子稱其賢(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..後世尊為後聖.不遷怒:不將怒氣遷移到別人身上; 不貳過:不再犯已犯過的過失錯誤.

Ji Kangzi asked:Which disciples  of yours loved learning?

Confucius responded:There was Hui,he was fond of learning.Unfortunately he was shortlived and had died already.Now there is not anyone.

11.7 顏淵,顏路之車以為之椁, :才不才,亦各言其子也.鯉也死,有棺而無椁.吾不徒行以?之椁;以吾從大夫之後,不可徒行也.

本章記顏淵喪葬之事.

顏淵死了,他的父親顏路請求將孔子的車子賣掉,顏淵買一具外棺.老師說:才與不才,說來都是兒子啊,以前我兒子鯉死的時候,也是沒有椁的,我不能徒步而賣掉車子替他買椁.我要跟從在大夫之後(做大夫應遵守的禮儀),不可以步行的啊.

顏路:無繇(zhou粵讀就),,顏淵之父,少孔子六歲,亦是孔子的弟子;

: guo粤讀國,棺外之套棺; :孔子長子,伯魚,死時五十歲(孔子當年七十歲); 徒行:步行也; 以吾從大夫之後;孔子時為大夫,言從大夫之後不可徒步;

When Yan Yuan died,his father Yanlu requested for the master to use his  carriage to make an enclosure for his son’s coffin.

Confucius said:Whether Using my carriage as a coffin enclosure or not,let us relate this matter with our sons. My son Li also died,his coffin was without an enclosure.I could not walk on foot to furnish a coffin  enclosure.I had to follow the norm of a‘Fucius’.It was not proper for my position to walk on foot.

11.8 顏淵,:! 天喪予,天喪予.

本章述孔子顏淵之死.

老師哭泣:顏淵死了,天要亡我了,

:傷痛之聲; 天喪予:天亡我也;

顏淵:孔子最得意的學生.521-490姓顏名回.字子淵,亦稱顏淵.孔子弟子.孔子稱其賢(孔子十哲之首:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..後世尊為後聖.回不遷怒:不將怒氣遷移到別人身上; 不貳過:不再犯已犯過的過失錯誤.孔子贊他聞一知十,自比不如.

When Yan Yuan died, Confucius said:Alas! Heaven is destroying me! Heaven is destroying me!

11.9 颜淵,子哭之慟.從者曰:子慟矣! …:有慟乎? 非夫人之為慟而誰為?

本章述孔子悲痛顏淵之死

顏淵死了.老師哭得很悲慟,跟從的弟子說:夫子過於悲慟了; …老師說:有過於悲痛嗎??這樣的人悲痛還?誰悲痛啊!

:哀傷過度; 夫人:猶指此人;

顏淵,亦稱子淵.孔子弟子.孔子稱其賢(孔子十哲之首:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).後世尊為後聖.回不遷怒:不將怒氣遷移到別人身上; 不貳過:不再犯已犯過的過失錯誤.孔子贊他聞一知十,自比不如.

When Yan Yuan died, Confucius grieved deeply with great agony.Those with him said: Master,, your grief is too excessive.

Confucius said:Have I reaaly been too excessive? Even so, who else can I be too excessively grieve for?

11.10 顏淵,門人欲厚葬之.子曰:不可; …門人厚葬之. 子曰:回也,視予猶父也;予不得視猶子也. 非我也,夫二三子也!

本章記門人欲厚葬顏回,孔子阻之.

顏淵死後,孔子的弟子們想要厚葬他.老師說:不可以; …終於弟子們厚葬了顏淵老師說:!看待我如同父親一般,我不得看待他如兒子一樣,非是我要厚葬他呢,是那些弟子們啊!

厚葬:言喪葬應視家之貧富而定,家貧而厚葬則非禮也; 夫二三子:弟子們;

When Yan Yuan died, the disciples wished to arrange a great funeral.The master said:Do not do so!

However the disciples had arranged a full great burial ceremony.

Confucius said: Hui  treated me as his father,I have failed to treat him as a son.This is not my idea, its your schoolmates’idea.

11.11 季路問事鬼神.:未能事人,焉能事鬼? …:敢問死; …:未知生,焉知死.

本章明生死一理,天人一體,學者不可躐等(越級fail to follow proper order).

子路問怎樣去奉事鬼神.老師說:沒有知道奉事人的道理去奉事人,怎能知道奉事鬼的道理去奉事鬼呢? …子路又問:人在死後怎樣? …老師答:既不知道人在出生以前的事,又怎樣知道人在死後的事呢?

問事鬼神:問祭祀鬼神之道; 未能事人,焉能事鬼:人鬼一理,不能奉事人,何能奉事鬼; 問死: 問死後之事; 未知生,焉知死:生死一體,不知生前那裡來,怎知死後那裡去.

季路:魯國卞人,子路一字季路,孔子弟子,(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.衛大夫孔悝(kui粵讀灰),以為邑宰,時出公在位,孔悝母伯姬與豎良夫謀立.太子(kuai粤讀拐)(gui粵讀貴)廹孔悝與蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked about how to serve the spirits of the dead.

Confucius said:While we are not able to serve them while they are  living,how are able to serve their spirits after they die?

Zilu went on to ask:I venture

 to ask about the after death.

Confucius said:We do not know where we come from before life, how do we know where we go to after death?

11.12閔子侍側,誾誾如也.子路行行如也.冉有,子貢侃侃如也.子樂;…也不得其死然.

本章述孔子弟子等四人修養上成就的氣象.

閔子騫侍奉之時,有着一派中正適度的氣象.子路有着一派剛強勇敢氣象.冉有,子貢二人有一派温和悅樂的氣象.老師感到很快樂.但他說:!恐怕他不得善終吧.

誾誾如:(yin誾粵讀銀)中正適度貌; 行行如:剛強貌; 侃侃如:(kan侃粵讀罕)理直而和樂貌; 不得其死然:,未定之辭.此謂子路()剛強,恐不得以壽終也.

:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.衛大夫孔悝(kui粵讀灰),以為邑宰,時出公在位,孔悝母伯姬與豎良夫謀立.太子蒯(kuai粤讀拐)(gui粵讀貴)廹孔悝與蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公奔.子路入,見蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

閔子:,子騫.536-487國人,孔子弟子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性孝友,以德行著.少時被後母虐,其親生二子以絮造衣;子騫則以盧花;父知之欲出後母,子騫曰:母在一子寒,母去三子單.遂止,母亦感悟.

冉有:522-489,子有,亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子,十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)冉有具才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰. 參閱11.15

子貢:國人.(貢本作贛),姓端木名賜.孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).賜有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於齊.

Serving the master by his sides,MinZiqian was earnest and respectful;Zilu was bold and disciplinary;Ran You and Zigongwere genial and pleasant,Confucius was happy.However he made a comment on Zilu:I am afraid that a person like You(Zillu),might not die out of a natural course.

11.13 人為長府.閔子騫:仍舊貫,如之何? 何必改作; …子曰:夫人不言,言必有中.

本章述閔子騫不妄言,言必中肯.

人計劃改造藏財貨的府庫.閔子騫說:還是照舊樣子不好嗎? 何必改做呢?…老師說:此人不說話,說出來必中肯合理.

長府:為藏財貨之所; 仍舊貫:仍照舊制;

閔子騫: 536-487魯國人,姓閔名損,字子騫.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性孝友,以德行著.少時被後母虐,其親生二子以絮造衣;子騫則以盧花;父知之欲出後母,子騫曰:母在一子寒,母去三子單.遂止,母亦感悟.

The people of Lu wished to renovate the treasury warehouse. MinZiqian suggested:Restore the same architecture,What do you think of that?

Confucius said:That man seldom speaks.When he does, he’s  always cogent.

11.14 :之瑟,奚為於之門?…門人不敬子路.:也升堂矣!未入於室也.

本章言子路,因其一事之不足,而忽其全部修養

工夫.

老師說:仲由的鼓瑟聲,怎能算是出自我的門下呢? …弟子因此不敬重他;…老師說:由啊!他的學養比如已經升堂了,只不過還未達精微比如入室的境地罷了.

之瑟:,樂器名稱, 仲由(子路)性剛勇,其鼓瑟之聲亦如此,夫子亦戒之; 升堂入室:比喻人之道的深淺; :何也;

Confucius said:Its hard to say that You learn to play the Se(Zither)within the Qiu’s door.Whereupon,the other disciples began not to respect Zilu.

Confucius said:You was already admitted the door and ascended the hall, its only that he has yet to advance into the inner room.  

11.15子貢:也孰賢? …子曰:也過,也不及; …:然則愈與? …:過猶不及.

本章說明子張子夏的質,各有所偏.

子貢:子張子夏,誰較好一點呢? …老師說:子張失之太過,子夏失之不及;…子貢:那麽是子張比較好一些吧; …老師說:太過如同不及.(同樣不是在中庸之道上)

:顓孫,孔子弟子,孔子48,國人,後世有子張之儒.

:子夏(507-?姓卜名商,衛國溫人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏繼孔子之後,系統性傳授儒家經典的第一人.被後世譽為傳經鼻祖.他晚年是戰國時期开始,魏國西河一帶教學,開創的{西河學派}培育出大批經國治世良材,並成為孔儒支流法家成長的搖籃.); 過猶不及:太過如同不及,皆未入中道; 

子貢:國人.(貢本作贛),姓端木名賜.孔子弟子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說出師敵以存.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

Zigong asked: Who is better, Shi or Shang?

Confucius said:Shi has gone beyond the mark, Shang has yet to reach.

Zigong asked:Therefore Shi is better,I supposed?

Confucius said:Going too far is not much better than going not far enough.

11.16 季氏富於周公,也為之聚斂而附益之. 子曰:非吾徒也,小子鳴鼓而攻之,可也!

本章責冉求不應為季氏聚斂而濟其富.參閱11.20

季氏已比周天子上室的周公還要富有,而冉求還要為他征斂,使他的富有再增多.老師說:他不是我的徒.弟子們!可以大聲公開的討伐他.

季氏富於周公:言季氏為諸侯之卿,而富於上朝之周公; 聚斂附益:多方聚集徵收,增加其財富; 鳴鼓攻之:大聲討伐他;

冉求:522-489魯人,子有,亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子,有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰.

The head of the Ji clan was richer than the Duke of Zhou, and still,Ran Qiu was assisting to collect taxes greedily for him to increase his wealth.

Confucius said:He is not a pupil of mine.Disciples and all,beat the drum and set off to assail him!

11.17 也愚,也魯,也辟,也喭.(yan粵讀現)

本章孔子評四弟子各有所偏使自勉之.

高柴較愚直,曾參較遲鈍,顓孫師較偏激,仲由較粗俗.

:yan粵讀現粗野之言論; :志高大流於偏激;
:,子羔,孔子弟子,比孔子細30.衛人,史記載:柴也愚,長不盈五尺.
:曾參孔子46,魯人,傳孝經,孔子之孫子思,孔伋,是曾子弟子.孔伋後立子思儒派.再述曾參(曾子)505-436魯國武城人,姓曾名參字子輿.曾點之子.孔子弟子.事親至孝.悟聖道一貫之旨.以其學傳子思(孔子孫兒),後世稱為宗聖.曾子十八篇.

:顓孫師,子張.孔子48,陳人,後世有子張之儒派.參閱11.14
:子路魯國卞人,,子路一字季路,孔子弟子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.衛大夫孔悝(kui粵讀灰),以為邑宰,時出公在位,孔悝母伯姬與豎良夫謀立.太子蒯(kuai粤讀拐)(gui瞶粤
)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Chai is rather a simpleton,Shen is rather a bit slow, Shi is quite extreme and Zhong You is too rash.

11.18 ,其庶乎! 屢空. 不受命,而貨殖焉,億則屢中.

本章孔子子淵,子貢各有所長.

老師說:說及回吧,他已近乎道了.時常守着窮乏.談及賜吧,不接受公家的俸祿.但自己經營財貨,每次猜測物價皆準確.

庶乎:,近也.言近乎道吧; 屢空:時常很窮乏; 不受命:不受祿; 貨殖:貨財生殖; :猜度;

: 521-490顏名回.字子淵,亦謂顏淵.魯國人.孔子弟子十哲之首:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).敏而好學.問一知十,孔子自認不如.回不遷怒,不貳過,貧居陋巷,(音單)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其樂.孔子稱其賢.早卒,後世尊為復聖.

:端木,國人.(貢本作贛),.孔子弟十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於齊.

Confucius said:Hui has probably attained the perfect virtue.but he was always in lack of heaps.Ci does not accept offers of governmental post,as a merchant managing his own investments, he is always accurate with his predictions.

11.19 子張問善人之道.子曰:不踐迹,亦不入於室.

本章孔子論善人的境界.

子張問善人的行為,老師說:善人能不隨世俗人的腳印走而自不為惡,但學問也不入於完善的境界().

不踐迹:不照着世人的腳印走;

子張:顓孫,孔子弟子.孔子48.陳國人,孔子曾說過師也過(11.14),師也辟(11.16);後世有子張之儒派.
Zizang asked about the way of a benevolent person.Confucius said:A benevolent person does not tread in the footsteps of evil-doers,however,his learning is not among the advanced learners’level.

11.20 :論篤是與,君子者乎?色莊者也?

本章言不可以貌取人.

老師說:一個人的言論很篤實,本應贊許的,那知道真是一位君子呢?還是只有外表莊嚴而心實不然呢?

論篤:論篤實sincere/honest; :許可也; 色莊:外貌莊然內實不然;

Confucius said:People usually approve of a person whose discourse seems pragmatic and honest.But is he really a person of integrity ,or merely a hypocrite in disguise?

11.21 子路:聞斯行諸? …子曰:有父兄在,如之何其聞斯行之? …冉有:聞斯行諸? …子曰:聞斯行之! …公西華:也問聞斯行諸,子曰有父兄在;求也問聞斯行諸,子曰聞斯行之; 也惑,敢問; …子曰:也退,故進之;由也兼人,故退之.

本章記孔子因材施教.使之無過不及之偏.參閱11.15

子路:聽到一種好的道理,就應當去做嗎? …老師說:還有父兄在上,怎麽可以聽到就做呢? …冉有問:聽到一種好的道理,就應當去做嗎? …老師說: 聽到一種好的道理,就應當去做; …公西華說:由問聽到一種好的道理,就應當去做嗎? 老師答有父兄在上,怎可以; 求問:聽到一種好的道理,就應當去做嗎? 老師答聽到一種好的道理,就應當去做; 赤對此甚不解,想再問個明白; …老師說:求啊!畏縮不前,所以我鼓勵他快些進取.由啊!勇為,一人做起來抵兩人,所以我抑制他一些.

聞斯行諸:聞義即當勇為之; 退:畏縮不前; 兼人:一人做加倍二人的事;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

:522-489子有,孔子弟子.有才藝,性謙退,任季氏家宰.

:姓公西名赤,字子華,魯人.孔子弟子.束帶立朝,知賓主之儀.

Zilu asked:When I hear a good deed, Shall I set off to practice it myself promptly?

Confucius said:While your father and elder brother are still present, how can you set off to practice it promptly?!

Ran You asked: When I hear a good deed, Shall I set off to practice it promptly?

Confucius said:When a good deed is heard, one should follow and practice it promptly.

Gongxi Hua said:When You asked‘When I hear a good deed, Shall I set off to practice it myself promptly?

’and master said:Your father and elder brother are present; Qiu also asked whether he should practice a good deed immediately after he had heard of itand the master said he should do it promptly. Chi (Gongxi Hua)is thus confused. May I ask why?

Confucius said:Qiu is bashful ,needed to be egged on.You has the boldness of two.and needed to be held back.

11.22 子畏,顏淵.:吾以女為死矣;…:,何敢死?

本章述孔子關懷弟子安危.參閱9.5

老師在匡被圍攻,心有戒心.颜淵失散落在後面, 老師說:我以為你已死了!…顏淵:夫子您還在,,何敢輕易就死呢?

畏於:孔子被圍攻而有戒心; :通汝,即你也;

Confucius was trapped in Kuang and Yan Hui had fallen behind.

The master said:I thought you had died.

Hui replied:While the master is still alive,how could Hui dare to die?

11.23 季子然:仲由,冉求,可謂大臣與?…:吾以子為異之問,曾由與

求之問.所謂大臣者,以道事君,不可則止,今由與求也,可謂具臣矣;…:然則從之者與?…:弒父與君,亦不從也.

本章述孔子說明臣事君之道.

季子然:仲由冉求可以稱得上是大臣嗎? …老師說:我以為你問的是別人,原來問的是由和求呀.稱作大臣的人,能夠照先王之道來侍奉君王,若不能這樣做,寧可辭官.現在由與求兩個人,可以算是一般的大臣罷; …季子然又說:那麼他們會一切都順從季氏嗎? …老師說:殺父和弑君王的事,他們也不肯順從的.

季子然:季氏子弟,因得子路,冉求為家臣,故問之; 異之問:問的是別人; :原來是; 具臣:一般的臣而已;

:子路魯國卞人,子路一字季路,孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.衛大夫孔悝(kui粵讀灰),以為邑宰,時出公在位,孔悝母伯姬與豎良夫謀立.太子蒯(kuai粤讀拐)(gui粵讀貴)廹孔悝與蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公奔.子路入,見蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

: 522-489魯人,字子有,亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子,有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰.

Ji Ziran asked:Can both Zhong You and Ran Qiu be called Great Ministers?

Confucius said:I thought you would ask someone else. Yet only You and Qiu you are asking.What is so called Great minister,is one who serves his prince according to righteousness.When he finds he cannot do so, he would retire.As for Zhong You and Qiu,they may just be  called as a minister.

Ji Ziran said: In this case, they will always obey their superior?

The master said:In an order of slaying their father or their prince,they will not follow that.

11.24 子路使子羔.:賊夫人之子!…子路:有民人焉,有社稷焉,何必讀書,然後為學? …子曰: 是故惡夫佞者!

本章明人應當學成才為仕.

子路要使子羔季氏 費邑,老師說:這是害了人的兒子;…子路:那裡有人民,有社稷(治事事神皆是為學),何必一定要讀書才算是為學呢? …老師說:這樣所以我很厭惡理不足而徒言辭來對付人的人.

:bi費粤讀庇,季氏之封邑; 賊夫人之子:/害也,時子羔尚幼,學未成熟,使之為宰,適以害之; :厭惡也; :理不足而徒以口才言辭對付人者.

子羔:子羔,孔子30.衛人,史記載:柴也愚,長不到五尺.

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu send Zigao (an undergraduate) to govern Fei.

Confucius said:You are doing harm to someone’s son.

Zilu said:In Fei,there are people, there are alters for the spirits of land and grains,why reading from books can only be called learning?

The master said: This is why I hate to talk with glib tongue people.

11.25 子路,曾晳,冉有,公西華侍坐.子曰:吾一日長乎爾,毋吾以也;…居則曰:不吾知也,如或知爾,則何以哉? …子路率爾而對曰:千乘之國,攝乎大國之間,加之以師旅,因之以饑饉,由也為之,比及三年,可使有勇,且知方也; …夫子哂之.求爾何如? …對曰:方六,七十,如五,六十,求也為之,比及三年,可使足民.如其禮樂,以俟君子(si讀自); …赤爾何如? …對曰:非曰能之,願學焉,宗廟之事,如會同,端章甫,願為小相焉; …點爾何如?鼓瑟希,鏗爾,舍瑟而作,對曰:異乎三子者之撰; …子曰:何傷乎?亦各言其志也; …:莫春者,春服旣成冠者五,六人.童子六,七人.浴乎沂,風乎舞雩,詠而歸; …夫子喟言歎曰:吾與點也! …三子者出,曾智後,曾智曰:夫三子者之言何如? …子曰:亦各言其志也已矣! …:夫子何哂由也? …:為國以禮,其言不讓,是故哂之; …唯求則非邦也與? …安見方六,七十如五,六十,而非邦也者? …唯赤則非邦也與? …宗廟會同,非諸侯而何?赤也為之小,孰能為之大?

本章述孔子及其弟子各言其志,以觀其器識.

子路,曾晳,冉有,公西華陪孔子坐着,孔子說:我比你們稍為年長,不要因此就不敢發表意見.平日你們閒居時老說沒有人知道我呀,假若有人知道你們,那你們要怎麼樣呢? …子路急忙搶先答:具有一千輛戰車的國家(),夾在大國中間,外有別國軍隊侵犯,內有災荒,這樣的國家讓我治理,只要三年,就可以使人民剛勇又明白一些道理; …孔子聽了微微一笑.老師又問:冉求你怎麽樣? …冉求答:一個有六,七十里方邊,或者五,六十里方邊的國家讓我去治理,只要三年時間,可以使人民豐衣足食,至於禮樂教化,便要等待賢君的出現了; …(老師又問)公西華,你怎麼樣? …公西華答:不敢說我能勝任,只是說我願意學習學習.宗廟祭祀的事.或者與別國會會盟的事.我願穿上禮服,戴上禮帽,擔任一個小司儀; …(老師又問):曾晳()你怎麼樣? …曾點聽到老師問他,便把鼓瑟的音節慢下來,鏗的一聲推開瑟站起來答:我的志趣不同三子的陳說; …老師說:那有甚麼關係呢?各人也有自己的志向罷了; …曾點說:當暮春的時候,新成的(換季)衣服穿上身,約青年人五六個,小孩六七個,同到沂(yi沂粤讀宜)水之邊,(guan盥粤讀貫)洗手臉,再到求雨的祭壇之上,沈浸在春風裡,唱着歌一路回來; …老師喟然歎道:我贊同點啊! …三弟子都走了,曾晳()在後,隨問:他們三位所說的志願怎樣? …老師說:不過各說自己的志願罷了; …曾晳()再問:老師為何笑由(子路)?…老師說:治國要以禮,他說的一點禮讓沒有,所以我才笑他; …:那麼求所說的不像是治理一個國家呢? …:怎見得六,七十里,或五,六十里方邊大的地方就不是一個國家呢? …:但赤所說的就不像是一個國家呀? …:宗廟祭祀,諸侯會同,不是國家諸侯之事是甚麼?赤願意只做小相,那誰才算是大相呢?

一日長乎爾:年紀稍長些; 毋吾以也:不要因我較年長而難言之也; :平日; 何以哉:將何以為用也; 率爾:輕率也; :廹也; 師旅:古二千五百人為師,五百人為旅,意軍旅之事; 饑饉:饑荒; 比及:等到; :微笑; :或也; 以俟君子: si俟粵讀,等待也; 足民:使人民富足;方六,七十:/邊也,面積每邊六,七十里者也; 宗廟之事:謂祭祀之事; 會同:諸侯相會見也; 端章甫:/玄端,禮服也,章甫/禮冠也; 小相: 相乃贊君禮儀之儐相.小乃謙辭; :希落,指瑟聲漸慢下來; 鏗爾:鏗然投瑟之聲; 舍瑟而作:捨了瑟而起立; :具也,所具之志; 莫春:暮春也; 春服:單夾之衣; 冠者:古時男子二十而冠,成年人也; :yi粵讀宜,水名,發源自山東曲阜縣南流入江蘇,此水有温泉流入,暮春即可沐浴;  風乎舞雩:風凉於祭天禱雨之處,舞雩地名,今山西.

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

曾晳,名點,曾參(曾子)之父,父子皆為孔子弟子;

冉有:522-489,子有,亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰. 參閱11.15

公西華:公西,子華,.孔子弟子.束帶立朝,知賓主之儀.

Zilu, Zeng Xi,Ran You and Gongxi Hua were sitting by the master.

Confucius said:I may be a little bit older than you,but do not mind that, as you often complain  ‘we are not known’,well,if some prince were to know you,what would you wish to do?”

Zilu rushed to indiscreetly say:Asatellite  state of a thousand chariots, enclosed by powerful countries,invaded by foreign armies, and thus caused famine at home,You(Zilu )is able to manage it…let me have three years I could make the people bold and know their principles.

Confucius smiled at Zilu and asked Qiu:

‘What would you do Qiu?’

Qiu replied:Should I run a place of sixty or seventy square miles , or one of fifty or sixty, Qiu can also manage it. in three years time I could suffice the people.As to teaching ritual and music,I would wait for the appearance of a superior man to do that.

The master said: What would you do Chi?

Chi answered: I am not saying that I can do this ,therefore  I would like to learn,not of what I can do.at service in the ancestral temple,or at vassals conference ,I would like to be in full dress,, to act as a junior officer.

The master turned to Dian and asked:What would you like to do Dian?

Dian gradually halted playing the music,put aside the Se (zither) rose and replied:my wishes are different,from the other three.

Confucius said:Whats wrong with that? We are only speaking of our thoughts.

Zeng Xi said:In the last days of spring,light jacket is now appropriate for the weather ,along with five or six young men,and six or seveven young lads,we would bathe in the Yi River,enjoy the breeze at Wuyu(the altar Dance to pray for rains),and then return home singing.

The master sighed and said:I am with Dian.

The three other having gone out. Zengxi remainded behind and said:What do you think of what the others had said?

The master said: Each but speak of his mind.

‘Why did you smile at You?(Zilu)’

The master said:the management of a state demands the rules of propriety,yet what he said was not modest.Thats  why I smiled at him.

‘But did not Qiu sjpeak of the matters of a state?’

The master said:Have you ever seena territory of sixty or seventy miles or one with fifty or sixty ,that were not a state?

‘But Chi actually did not speak of matters of a state?’

The master said:Who but princes would there be in the ancestral temjple,or at the grand audience of vassals? Is this not a matter of state affair? If Chi were to regard this as a junior officer  in these services,what affair would have to be important enough for a senior one?

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