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里仁 第四篇  

2011-08-11 22:11:58|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯里仁 第四篇 共二十六章

 

里仁 第四篇 共二十六章

 

4.1 曰:里仁為美,擇不處仁,焉得知.

本章言居必選擇與仁者相處.

…老師說:鄉里中以有仁者為美盛之事,若選擇居所,不處與有仁風之地,怎能算是明智呢?

里仁:鄉里中之仁者.

Confucius said: Should it be ideal to live amidst a virtuous village, how could it be wise to choose other kinds of neighbourhood?

4.2曰:不仁者,不可以久處約,不可以長處樂.仁者安仁,知者利仁.

本章言人要以仁為本.

…老師說:一個不仁的人,不能長久處在窮困之中.也不能長久處在安樂之中.一個仁者,心自安仁道而行.智者,知道行仁有利,也向仁道而行.

:困窮也. 安仁:此心自安於仁; 知者利仁:智者心知仁之利故行之.

Confucius said: Those who are not virtuous,cannot live in a duration of restraint, neither can they live freely with enjoyments(without dissipating). A virtuous person is satisfied in his/her virtuous beliefs. A wise person knows the advantages of being virtuous.

4.3曰:唯仁者,能好人,能悪人.

本章言仁者的好惡不出自私心.

…老師說:只有一個有仁德的人,見人善才心有喜愛.見人不善才會心生厭惡.

Confucius said: only those who are genuinely virtuous can express their love as well as hatred to others.

4.4曰:苟志於仁矣,無悪也.

本章言一個人如果以仁存心,心無為惡的事了.

…老師說:一個人誠能以仁存心,立志為仁,必無為惡的事發生了.

:誠然.

Confucius said: With an ambition to persevere with virtuous beliefs, there will be no practice of wickedness.

4.5 曰:富與貴,是人之所欲也.不以其道得之,不處也.貧與賤,是人知所悪也,不以其道得之,不去也.君子去仁,惡乎成名?君子無終食之間違仁;造次必於是,巔沛必於是.

本章論君子以仁存心;不因富貴貧賤去仁,不因造次顛沛而違仁.

…老師說:富貴是人所喜愛.不以正當方法取得,不居此富貴之中.貧賤是人所厭惡,如沒有正當的方法,亦不去此貧賤.君子如違離了仁道,怎能稱得上君子之名呢?一個君子,沒有一頓飯時間有遺仁道.雖在怱忙的時候,還是這樣以仁存心.雖在流離困阨之間,還是這樣以仁存心.

終食之間:一餐飯時間; 造次:怱忙之時; 顛沛:流離困阸之時.

Confucius said: Fortune and fame are what we desire.If such cannot be acquired via a proper way, they should gain not. Poverty and desolation are what we dislike.If they can not be resolved in a proper way,they should avoid not. If a person of virtue forsake his/her virtuous beliefs, its difficult for he/she to bear the name of a person of virtue.

A person of virtue must not even for a time of single meal,act contrary to virtue. As well as in moments of haste, so as notwithstanding In periods of miseries.

4.6 曰:我未見好仁者惡不仁者.好仁者,無以尚之; 惡不仁者,其為仁矣,不使不仁者加乎其身,有能一日用其力於仁矣乎?我未見力不足者;蓋有之矣,我未之見也.

本章孔子歎世人不知致力行仁.

…老師說:我沒見到一個喜愛仁道,厭悪不仁的人.眞愛仁道的人,會覺得世上沒有可喜愛的事加乎其上.厭惡不仁的人,不會使不仁之事,加在他的身上.眞有人會有過這麽一天,肯努力去行仁嗎?我沒見過說他行仁的力量不夠,或許有這種人,可是我沒見過啊!

:加,超越

[A] Confucius said:(1) I have not seen an advocate of virtue hates those who are behaving contrary.

An advocate of virtue feels an unsurpassable excellence. Having a distaste to those not virtuous is intrinsically virtue itself,lest be involved personally with vicious matters.

Has anyone for one single day endeavour to apply their strength to their utmost virtue? I have not seen a case of insufficient strength.Should there be one,I have yet to see it.

 

[B] Confucius said(2) I have not seen an advocate of virtue or those who hate those who are behaving contrarily had any single day applied their efforts to the utmost…

 

4.7 曰:人之過也,各於其黨;觀過,斯知仁矣!

本章言可從觀察人之過而知仁與不仁.

…老師說:人的過失,因人而有類別.從觀察他的過失,便知此人是仁或不仁.

:類別.

Confucius said:Faults of individuals are traits of the clique in which they belong. Observing their faults, thus know whether or not the clique is virtuous.

4.8 曰:朝聞道,夕死可矣.

本章言聞道之重要.

…老師說:早上如果能聽到人之所以為人之道,就是晚上死了也可以(無憾於心)了.

聞道:聞知事物當然之理.人之所以為人之道.

Confucius said: Should enlightenment be achieved at dawn, could then die with no chagrin at dusk.

4.9 曰:士志於道,而恥悪衣悪食者,未足與議也.

本章言一心向道,何暇顧及衣食之美悪.

…老師說:一個讀書修身的人,心在向道,又以衣食不美為耻,這種人已不直相議論道了.

:讀書修身之人

Confucius said: A scholar whose ambition is to become virtuous, whereas feeling shameful of wearing poor clothings and serving cheap foods,is not an ideal person to discuss anything with.

4.10 曰:君子之於天下也,無適()也,無莫也,義之與比(從).

本章言君子一切言行,唯議是從.

…老師說:君子對天下一切的事,不以主觀的一定要如此,或一定不如此,總在是否合乎義,唯義是從.(參閱 9.4絕四: 毋意,毋必,毋固,毋我.)

:本章也; 莫:否定義;不可如此做.

Confucius said: A virtuous person when dealing with public affairs (is not opinionated),would set hisher mind neither for anything nor against anything.Yet determine it by comparison. 

4.11 曰:君子懷德,小人懷土.君子懷刑,小人懷恩.

本章分別君子與小人的心志.

…老師說:君子所思念的在道德的修養.小人則思念擁着一份恆產是以使生活安樂.君子常思念着一切言行有否觸及刑罸.小人常思念着別人給予恩惠.

Confucius said: A virtuous person concerns constantly on keeping proper behavings.Hoi Polloi care about gaining their properties(wealth). A virtuous person reminding constantly to abide by laws, Hoi Polloi concern only for their social benefits.

4.12 曰:放於利而行,多怨.

本章戒人不可縱心去謀利,而積怨.

…老師說:一個人不可放縱心意去謀利.必會惹來很多的怨恨.

Confucius said: Should it aim only to gain more profits, would gain even more complaints.

4.13 曰:能以禮讓為國乎?何有? 不能以禮讓為國,如禮何?

本章言能禮讓才能治國.

…老師說:若能用禮讓之德來治國,那還有什麽困難?如不能用禮讓來治國,那禮有何作用呢?

Confucius said: If a country is governed by a complaisant ruler,what sort of problem he/she can not solve? If a ruler can not run the country with  complaisance, what is that usage of rites for?

4.14 曰:不患無位,患所以立.不患莫己知,求為可知也.

本章言君子一切求諸己.

…老師說:不應憂慮得不到職位,應憂慮的是如果在位有沒有從事這職位上的品德和才能.不要憂慮人不知道自己,應力求自己有什麼品德才能足可使人稱道的.

:職位; 立:立於其位之品德才能.

Confucius said: Do not worry of being not assigned for a position. Just concern whether you are qualify for that position. Chagrin not as being unheeded. Just strive to become worthwhile for attention.

4.15 曰:乎!吾道一與貫之. 曾子曰:唯;…出,門人問曰:何謂也?曾子曰:夫子之道,忠恕而已矣.

本章曾參以忠恕一解釋孔子道之[一貫]

…老師說:啊!我所說的道,所指雖繁多,按其理實事一連貫的;…曾子應道:是啊!…老師出去以後,其他的弟子們:老師說的是什麼意思?…曾子說:老師說的道就是忠恕罷了.(參閱15.23子貢:有一言而可以終身行之者乎? :其恕乎!己所不欲,勿施於人.)

道一與貫:道雖千端萬緒,皆可會通而歸於[一貫]

:曾子

…for social participation, Confucius required to be loyal to himselfand considerate of others.As Confucius taught仲弓{12.2己所不欲,勿施於人.Do not do unto others what you would not want others to do unto you. This is the Confucius’golden rule 15.23

 

Confucius said: Shan,the intrinsical principal of my doctrine is prevailing unique.

Disciple Shan replied: Acknowledge!

Confucius left the class, other disciples asked Shan: What is the connotation?

Shan said: Our master reminds us, the principal of his doctrine is to be persistent abiding to its golden rule:Loyalty and Reciprocity.

4.16 曰:君子喻於義.小人喻於利.

本章論君子與小人,在議和利上的不同

…老師說:君子只曉知的在義,小人只曉知的在利.

:曉知義

Confucius said: Virtuous people are conversant with their duties.Hoi Polloi are conversant only with making their gains.

4.17 曰:見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省也.

本章教進德修身之道.

…老師說:看到賢德的人,想自己也要琢磨品德一樣.看到不賢的人,就自己反過來省察己身.有無像他的不善行為.

思齊:思與賢者看齊(一樣).

Confucius said:When seeing persons of virtue,we think of equalling them.When seeing a vicious person, we should introspect worryingly if we are in anyway similar.

4.18 曰:事父母幾諫,見志不從,又敬不違,勞而不怨,

本章說事奉父母當微言諫勸盡孝之道.

…老師說:事奉父母應當柔聲微婉去勸說.若父母不聽,達不到你所希望的,還是要恭恭敬敬的不可違拗他們的意思.雖然為此憂心操勞,亦不可有怨恨之意.

幾諫:柔聲微言相勸.

聯想:孝順者,主在字也.

Confucius said: when euphemising repeatedly a piece of advice to parent and yet were obstinately declined to accept,you should remain respectful although with great worries.There should have no chagrin in your strenuous effort.

4.19 曰:父母在,不遠遊,遊必有方.

本章言孝子不應輕離父母.不可不明去處.

…老師說:父母在時,不作遠行.如非得已要遠行,應該告知父母有一定的方向.

Confucius said: While parents are alive, children may not travel far away from home.Should it be a must to travel afar, the journey must have a fixed destination.

4.20 曰:三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣.

本章重出,已見學而篇1.11

Confucius said: Three years making no changes,of his beloved father’s code of conduct, that can be called filial piety.

4.21 曰:父母之年,不可不知也.一則以喜,一則以懼.

本章言孝心應對父母在生之年存喜懼.

…老師說:父母的年齡,不可不常記在心.一方面喜父母壽考康疆,一方面又懼父母衰老將至.來日無多.

:喜其壽考康疆[壽考long life]; :懼其來日無多.

考康疆[寿考long life]; :惧其来日无多.

Confucius said: The years of parents must not be ignored for two purposes.One for joy(when they are healthy), another for fear(as they grow old and weak).

4.22 曰:古者言之不出,恥躬之不逮也.

本章言人言不輕出,行不逮言為恥.

…老師說:古人話不輕易出口,怕自身行為上做不到為恥.

言之不出:不妄言;躬:身;逮:及(力所不逮)

Confucius said: Our ancestors seldom made speeches lest be shameful when their actions were unable to  match them. 

4.23 曰:以約失之者,鮮矣.

本章論約之可

…老師說:因為守着儉約,而有了差失的,太少了.

:收斂,不放縱,不浪費,謹言慎行.

Confucius said: to fail because of cautious restraint is seldom.

4.24 曰:君子欲訥於言(ne粵讀吶,不讀納),而敏於行.

本章說言要謹慎遲緩一些,行則要勤快.

…老師說:一個君子,(批評別人的)說話必會謹慎些.行動必會勤快些.

:slow of speech;to stammer as being cautious about speaking.

Confucius said: A person of virtue is often slow to speak(comment) but fast to act.

4.25 曰:德不孤,必有鄰.

本章論德之成效

…老師說:有德之人,不會孤立,必會有人來親近他的.

:孤獨寡友; 鄰:親近相從;

Confucius said:Virtue could never become lonely, who ever practices it would always have fervent supporter.

4.26 子游曰:事君(),斯辱矣;朋友(讀促),斯疏矣.

本章子游說事君交友之道.

子游:事君諫勸不可太過繁瑣,會遭侮辱.交朋友不可太多的規勸,會被疏遠.

():頻繁;疏:疏遠.

子游: 511-?姓,字子游,國人..仕武城宰.特習於禮,尤於文學,列位孔门十哲(子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).參閱

2.7子游問孝.曰:今之孝者是謂能養.至於犬馬,皆能有養.不敬何以別乎?

Ziyou said: Remontrate the master frequently will lead to disgrace. As with friends, you will be abandoned.

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