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泰伯 第八篇  

2011-08-11 13:14:16|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

加碼德筆記【論語淺譯泰伯 第八篇 共二十

 

泰伯 第八篇 共二十

 

8.1 :泰伯,其可謂至德也已矣! 三以天下讓,民無得而稱焉.

本章述泰伯之德.

老師說:泰伯可稱得上是至德之人了! 再三把天下讓給弟弟,(隱匿自己的功德,逃離了周)使人民們不知道他實在的事實來稱道他.

泰伯:周太王之長子.次弟仲雍.少弟季歷.季歷,又生聖子文王昌,泰伯以國位讓.仲雍逃走,於是太王季歷.

Confucius said:Taibo may indeed be called a man of highest virtue.He had thrice abdicated this throne.People were however unable to describe and praise him properly.

…Taibo had concealed all his good deeds and hid reclusively.   

8.2 :恭而無禮則勞,慎而無禮則葸(Xi讀徙),勇而無禮則亂,直而無禮則絞.君子篤於親則民興於仁.故舊不遺則民不偷.

本章說禮為一切行為之主.

老師說:恭敬而不合乎禮便會使人感到煩擾.謹慎而不合乎禮便會是畏縮恐懼.勇敢而不合乎禮便會犯上作亂.爽直而不合乎禮便會急切責人.在上位的人,能夠厚待於他的親屬,那人民見了便會興起仁愛之風.在上位的人能夠不遺棄故交舊友,那人民的風氣,也會趨向敦厚而不僥薄了.

:煩擾不安; :(Xi讀徙)畏懼(畏葸不前); :犯上; :急切刺人之非;:薄義; 歸厚:不僥薄(jiao粵讀囂),薄即冷淡也;

Performing ceremonies with improper rites are futile efforts.meticulousness neglecting the rites lead to timidiy.bold but na?ve of the rite would be unresting for the society, straightforward but careless for the rite would be aggressive therefore self-trussing.If  authorities were sincere and caring for their staff and kinmen,people would incline to be benevolent.If authorities cherished the past, people would then not be apathetically nonchalant.

8.3 曾子有疾,召門弟子曰:啟予足!啟予手!詩云:戰戰兢兢,如臨深淵,如履薄冰.…而今而後,吾知免夫? 小子!

本章述曾子戒慎工夫,至死不渝,以示門人.

曾子有病沈重了.召集門弟子到牀前來,:揪開被子看看我的手,看看我的足,詩經上說:小心謹慎!好比走在下臨深淵之上,好比踩在薄薄地河冰之上; …從今以後,我知道能免了,弟子們!

:開而視之; 戰戰兢兢:詩經小雅旻章,言己時刻戒慎守身,如臨淵恐其失墜,如踐踏在氷上,恐其落陷,戰戰:恐懼貌; 兢兢:戒慎貌; 小子:稱其門下弟子也.

曾子:子輿505-436武城,曾點之子.父子皆為孔子弟子.事親至孝.悟聖道一貫之旨.以其學傳子思(孔子孫兒),後世稱為宗聖.作曾子十八篇.孔子孫兒孔伋之師也,子思之儒.孔伋曾子孝道矣.

Zengzi was sick. He assembled his disciples and said:Look at my feet, look at my hands,The Book of Poetry says‘to be meticulously cautious like trembling with fright and moving fearfully as if approaching the edge of an abyss; or as if treading on thin layer of ice(lake).’. From now on, I know I will be free from all those predicaments,my disciples!

Connotation:If a person is not meticulously cautious all the time,its better for him to lie sick in bed so to avoid trouble.

8.4曾子有疾,孟敬子問之.曾子言曰:鳥之將死,其鳴也哀,人之將死,其言也善.君子所貴乎道者三,動容貌,斯遠暴慢矣;正顏色,斯近信矣;出辭氣,斯遠鄙倍矣;籩豆之事,則有司存.

本章言在上位的人,貴乎在容貌,顏色,言辭上要合禮.

曾子病重,孟敬子來慰問,曾子說:鳥將死時鳴叫的聲音就很悲哀,人將要死所說的話也是善良的.在上位的人,所應重視的道理有三種:能常注意表露容貌,自己便可以遠離態度上的粗暴,能常注意端正顏色,自己便可漸近誠信.能常注意說話措辭,自己便可以遠離鄙俗背理了.至於那些祭典之類的事,自有負責管理的官員們.

暴慢:言態度粗暴放肆; 辭氣:語之聲調也; 鄙倍: 鄙俗背理(倍同背); 籩豆之事:國家祭典之事情(籩豆:禮器); 有司:政府裡管事之人.

孟敬子:大夫,複姓仲孫,公子慶父之後.慶父共仲,故以為仲氏.亦曰仲孫.慶父,諱弑君之罪,更為孟氏.亦曰孟孫氏.

Zengzi was sick.Meng Jingzi visited to ask after him.Zengzi said:When a bird is dying soon, its cries are mournful; when a person is dying soon,his/her words are kindhearted. A person of virtue values  3 concepts. A solemn yet pleasant countenance can keep away violence and arrogance;wearing appropriate colours enhances trustworthiness,use formal wordings for speeches can avoid coarseness and iimpropriety. As far as matters for the temple, there are professionals to keep it in order.

8.5 曾子:以能問於不能,以多問於寡,有若無,實若虛,犯而不校,昔者吾友嘗從事於斯矣.

本章曾子稱贊顏回能虛己得人之美德.

曾子:自己有才能,去請教比他才能低的,自己知道的多,去請教比他知道少的,有好像沒有,充實好像很空虛,別人無理來冒犯,不予計較,從前我的朋友(顏回)曾經在這上面下過功夫了.

:計較也; 吾友:指顏回(據漢馬融注)

曾子:子輿505-436武城,曾點之子.父子皆為孔子弟子.曾子事親至孝.悟聖道一貫之旨.以其學傳子思(孔子孫兒),後世稱為宗聖.曾子十八篇.孔子孫兒孔伋子思,子思之儒孔伋曾子之孝道矣.

顏回:521-490顏名回.字子淵,亦稱顏淵.孔子弟子.孔子稱其賢(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..後世尊為後聖.回不遷怒:不將怒氣遷移到別人身上; 不貳過:

Zengzi said:An intelligent person to ask a less intelligent for advice;massive(knowledge) consulting the lesser;plentiful(wisdom) as if none; erudite as if ignorant;would not bother to seek revenge for insults.

A friend of mine in the past was able to achieve that.(Yan Hui)

8.6 曾子:可以託六尺之孤,可以寄百里之命,臨大節而不可奪也,君子人與? 君子人也!

本章曾子論君子之德.

曾子:可以託付輔助幼主,可以交付一個大國的政令,遇到生死存亡的關頭,也不會改變操守,這樣的人可稱得上是君子嗎? 真可稱得上是君子了.

託六尺之孤:十五歲大小之幼主,言受託於前君之命,輔助幼主; 寄百里之命: 百里者大國也,令者國政也; 大節:國家存亡關頭之個人生死的氣節; :動搖/改變;

曾子:505-436魯國武城人,名參字子輿.曾點之子.孔子弟子.事親至孝.悟聖道一貫之旨.以其學傳子思(孔子孫兒),後世稱為宗聖.作曾子十八篇.

Zengzi said:A person who is reliable to trust with an orphan crown prince(ensuring his succession of the throne),and is reliable to continue the policy of a state big as hundred miles,as facing the moment crisis of life and death could not deprive him of his determination,is such a person of virtue? A person of virtue indeed!

8.7曾子:士不可以不弘毅,任重而道遠,仁以為己任,不亦重乎?死而後已,不亦遠乎?

本章明士當弘毅,任重道遠.

曾子:一個讀書修身的人,不可以不弘大堅毅,因責任重,實踐的時期遠,把仁道推行,引為自己的責任,不是很重麽?這種工作實踐起來,一直到死才是停止,這不是很遙遠麼?

弘毅:弘大堅毅;

曾子:505-436魯國武城人,名參字子輿.曾點之子.孔子弟子.事親至孝.悟聖道一貫之旨.以其學傳子思(孔子孫兒),後世稱為宗聖.作曾子十八篇.

Zengzi said:A chief public officer must not be without fortitude.As the duty is imperative and the road to achieve it is lengthy.The onus for him/her is to be benevolent in every respect and life time., is that workload not heavy? Until death will the road come to an end, is that distance not lengthy?

…In the words of Confucius’disciple Tseng-tzu the true nobleman君子must be broad-minded and resolute,for his burden is heavy and his road is long. He takes humanity as his burden.Is that not heavy ? Only when death does his road come to an end. Is that not long?

8.8:興於詩,立於禮,成於樂.

本章述人立身成德之程.

老師說:一個人的心志起發於詩,能有些樹立於禮,一切品德成就於樂.

:起發也; :卓然自立; :學有成就,義精仁熟之境地.

Confucius said: People arefirstly  inspired by the Book of Poetry; Then their good conduct are established upon the norms of rite,finally with music, they are fulfilled.

8.9 :民可使由之,不可使知之.

本章言為政之道.

老師說:在上者引導人民照着當然如此的道理去做它,但無法使人民對這一定如此的道理去體悟原解它.

Confucius said:It is possible to ask people to follow a behest. It is impossible to make them understanding it.

Connotation:we follow red light to stop,green light to go.  But why not green light to stop and red light to go?

8.10 :好勇疾貧,亂也;人而不仁,疾之已甚,亂也.

本章言小人之行為.

老師說:若是一個好?而又厭惡自己貧窮的人,就易於興亂.對一個不仁的人,若厭悪他太過份,使他不能容身,也易於興亂.

疾貧:嫌悪貧窮;

Confucius said:People who are fond of daring and deeply detest their own poverty,they are chaos for the society! As for those rascals,treat them too severely will only force them to become even worse.

8.11 :如有周公之才之美,使驕且吝,其餘不足觀也已.

本章戒人驕吝,不足成德.

老師說:如有人像周公那樣的才智技藝的美好,而行為上驕矜,吝嗇.這其他才能也就不直一看了.

周公:名旦,周公旦,周武王之弟.成王之叔.武王崩,成王幼,周公攝政而遭管,,霍三叔忌之.作流言以撼公.周公避居東,作鸱鴞(chi-xiao鸱鴞粵痴囂,入貓頭鷹類之鳥)之詩以貽王.王悟其非,故迎周公歸.三叔皆懼,挾殷裔武庾(yu,本字義露天的谷倉).周公東征,殺武庾,誅貶三叔,滅國五十,奠定東南.歸而改定官制.創制禮法,周之文物.因以大備,後復營洛邑為東都.與召公 奭(奭音色)分陝而治.

Confucius said:Although a person is as talented and brilliant as the Duke of Zhao (Confucius’Idol ),yet is arrogant and mean,to observe such a person further is worthless.

8.12 :三年學,不至於穀,不易得也.

本章在勉為學在修己,不在祿位.

老師說:經過三年之久的為學修身,而心不向往看求祿位的,這種人眞不容易得到了.

:祿也;

Confucius said:Three years of learning, yet not desirous to seek profits for it,such kind of a character is not easy to find. 

8.13 :篤信好學,守死善道.危邦不入,亂邦不居;天下有道則見,無道則隱.邦有道,貧且賤焉,恥也; 邦無道,富且貴焉,恥也.

本章勉人守道,不為環境轉移.

老師說:能有堅定的信仰,又能好學,努力持守着正道,要傾危的國家不入,綱紀混亂的國家不居留,天下清平時,就表現出他的才能來,天下混亂時,就隱藏起來.國家清平時,貧而且賤,這是可恥的.國家在混亂時,富而且貴,這也是可恥的!

篤信:有着深刻的信仰.

Confucius taught:To devoutly believe in a fervent desire to pursue learning .Prepare to be a martyr defending the path of perfect virtue.Do not enter an unstable state.Do not live in a turbulent state.When righteousness prevails in the world,let yourself be seen.When righteousness disappears, hide yourself as a recluse.In a state of good merit, a person is shameful to be poor and cheap.In a state of low moral standard, a person is considered to be disgraceful if he is  rich and fame.

8.14 :不在其位,不謀其政.

本章言不在職位,不應參與該政務.

老師說:不在這職位上,就不應該參與討論這職位上的事.

:職位; :策劃;

Confucius said:A person who holds no position in a certain job should not discuss its policy.

8.15 :師摯之始,關雎之亂,洋洋乎盈耳哉!

本章說正樂感人之深.

老師說:當太師摯引樂開始,到關雎一章終結,這種悠揚美盛的聲音,充滿耳中不散啊!

師摯:魯樂師; :樂之終結; 洋洋乎:聲音美盛也;

關雎:(雎音追,有誤寫睢音須),詩經國風周南首篇篇名,詩序謂詠后妃之德.樂得淑女以配君子.朱熹謂宮人之詠太姒,然詩中無一語及宮闈,故後人或謂為民間詠初昏之詩.

Confucius said:Since the music master Zhi began to play till performing the last chapter of {Guan Ju},how melodious were the music remained echoing in my ears.

8.16 :狂而不直,侗而不愿, 悾悾而不信,吾不知之矣!

本章言人之反常行為,不知如何去教導了.

老師說:狂者進取而不行直道,無知之人而不謹慎忠厚,誠懇之人而不守信實,這些人我不知該怎樣去教導他們了.

:意志大進取者也; :(侗音同)無知也;

悾悾: (悾音空)誠墾之貌;

Confucius said:Confident audacity but not upright,na?ve but reluctant to learn,sincere but inconsistent;these are the people I do not know how to teach them.

8.17 :學如不及,猶恐失之.

本章言為學無止境.

老師說:為學時常好像趕不上人,既學到了又恐怕忘失了呢.

不及:趕不上人;

Confucius said:Pursue learning persistently as if not catching up, as well as fearing of losing it.

8.18 :巍巍乎!舜禹之有天下也,而不與焉.

本章美舜禹之為君也.

老師說:多麼偉大崇高啊!舜禹雖有天下而為人

,並不以有天下為樂.

巍巍:高大貌; 不與:不以居天子之位為樂;

舜禹:古代二帝;帝虞舜,承堯帝退位讓賢之祚,舜亦因禹帶父()治水不力之罪而立治理洪水有功而讓位給他,禹為夏代第一個君主.

Confucius said:How sublime indeed were they! Shun and Yu ruled the world yet they had done nothing favouring exclusively forthemselves. 

8.19 子曰:大哉!堯之為君也,巍巍乎,唯天為大, 唯堯則之,蕩蕩乎,民無能名焉,巍巍乎,其有成功也.煥乎,其有文章.

本章贊美堯之為君.

老師說:多偉大啊!堯之做天下之君,多崇高啊!只有天最高大了,只有堯可與之相比.多廣遠啊!人們無法用言語來形容他.多麽高大啊,他所成就的功業,多光明燦爛啊!他所留下的禮樂法度.

蕩蕩:廣遠貌; 無能名焉:不可用言語形容之;

煥乎:光明燦爛; 文章:禮樂制度;

:上古帝王,陶唐氏.史稱唐堯;他死後通過禪讓制度由舜繼位.成語{堯天舜日}比喻太平盛世.

Confucius said:How magnificent was Yao as a sovereign indeed! How sublime! Heaven above is boundless! Only Yao could level with it.His merits were uncountable.People were unable to find proper words to praise him.

Sublime indeed were his achievements.Brilliant were the norms of rite and music he instituted.

8.20 有臣五人,而天下治.武王曰:子有亂臣十人; …孔子曰:才難,不其然乎? 唐虞之際,於斯為盛,有婦人焉,九人而已.三分天下有其二,以服事殷,周之德,其可謂至德也已矣!

本章論治國之人才難得.并美周之德.

有臣五個人,而天下大治.武王說:我有治臣十人; …老師說:人才難得,可不是如此嗎?唐虞(堯舜)的時期,人才會很盛,後來到這周代之初,人才最盛.除了一婦人,其餘只有九人而已.三分天下,周就有了二分,周為諸侯之西伯,仍然服從事奉着殷朝天子,周文王之德,可算是最崇高的了.

唐虞之際:唐堯約前2353-2255; 虞舜約前2255-2204.

:帝堯,又稱唐堯,(,舜皆生時臣民所稱之號.非諡-死後之號),唐堯是帝嚳次子.初封陶,後徙唐,故又稱陶唐氏,因其子丹朱不肖,在位九十八年崩已立旨傳位於舜.

亂臣:治亂之臣也;

虞舜:.初居畎畝.有天下於故稱虞舜. (虞故城在今山西省,平陸縣東北,周武王於此;春秋時期晉侯借道於虞以滅虢,還師又滅虞),[]:古虞帝,姓姚,初居畎畝之中,能曲盡孝道.所居民多隨之,唐堯舉使攝政,乃除四凶[四凶族:渾敦(驩兜),窮奇(共工),檮杌(),饕餮(三苗).皆被舜所流放],虞舜舉八元八愷,(:善也,:和也,義八文職八武職)天下大治,攝政三十年,受禪即帝位.有天之號曰有虞氏.,民稱其號曰.史稱虞舜.又稱重華.後南巡崩於蒼梧之野.在帝位十八年,子商均不肖,傳位於禹.

舜有臣五人:,,(xie契音薛;契丹有誤讀薛音者屬約定俗成也),皐陶,伯益;

:自商湯滅夏桀,立商傳十八位至盤庚遷都于殷,商也稱殷.

周文王:.周武王之父.殷紂王時為西伯侯.國於岐山之下.西伯侯積善施仁.政化大行,崇侯虎讒之於紂,被囚羑(羑音有);其臣散宜生等獻紂以美女玉帛得釋歸.益行善政.諸侯多歸之.三分天下有其二.武王有天下,追尊為文王.

周武王:文王之子名.末期,嗣為西伯.殷紂無道,武王率諸侯策征,殷紂牧野自焚而死.武王乃代有天下.即帝位.國都[今陝西長安](hao讀号).在位十九年崩.謚曰.

:治也;

亂臣十人:周公旦,召公奭,太公望,畢公,榮公,大顛,閎夭,散而生,南宮括,有歸人焉,謂文母;

周公:名旦,周公旦,周文王之子,周武王之弟,成王之叔.武王崩,成王幼,周公攝政而遭管,,霍三叔忌之.作流言以撼公.周公避居東,作鸱鴞(:痴囂)之詩以貽王.王悟其非,故迎周公歸.三叔皆懼,挾殷裔武庾(庾音羽).王命周公東征,殺武庾,誅貶三叔,滅國五十,奠定東南.歸而改定官制.創制禮法以及周之文物.因以大備,後復營洛邑為東都.與召公奭(奭音色)分陝而治.

Shun had 5 ministers and his world was governed in good order. Emperor Wu said: I have 10 administration officers to settle all sorts of upheavals.Confucius said:It is hard to find capable people.Is it not so?(now) Only during the epochs of Tang*(Yao) and Yu(Shun) were talents flourished. (Emperor Wu)had 10 administration officers yet 1 was feminine. There were only 9 men. He secured two third of the world yet serving the Yin Dynasty magnaminously, Emperor Zhou’s virtue could be said to have reached the highest moral standard!

 

8.21:,吾無然矣!菲飲食而致孝乎鬼神,惡衣服而致美乎黻冕,卑宮室而盡力乎溝洫.,吾無然矣!

本章贊美夏禹之功德

老師說:大禹,我對他沒有缺點可以批評的.他對飲食很儉薄,而盡心奉事鬼神,平時的衣服很粗劣,但在祭禮時穿上很美的禮服,住屋很,而盡力疏通水道.消除洪水之災. 大禹,我對他沒有缺點可以批評的

:(jian粤讀諫)空隙/挑拔.謂無空隙缺處可以菲議; :盡力; 黻冕(fu-mian粤讀忽免)綉上半青半黑的祭典的禮服

溝洫(xu粤讀隙)疏通水道

Confucius said:Yu, I could find no flaw in him. His meals were plain and cheap yet his temple offerings were pietiscally luxurious. His usual clothes were ragged and shabby, yet the religious garb he wore was extremely fancy.His home was primitive and he was strenuously dredging ditches to avoid flooding. Oh Yu! I could find no flaw in him.

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