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鄉黨 第十篇  

2011-08-11 01:17:56|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯鄉黨 第十篇 共十八章

 

鄉黨 第十篇 共十八章

 

10.1 孔子於鄉黨,恂恂如也,似不能言者.其在宗廟,朝廷,便便言,唯謹爾.

本章記孔子在鄉黨,宗廟,朝廷等言貌之各不同.

孔子在鄉里間,温恭信實的態度,好像不善於說話的樣子.他在宗廟,朝廷上言辭口若懸河,但仍小心謹慎.

鄉黨:鄉里也; 恂恂如:温恭信實之貌; 便便:明辯之貌;

Confucius at his hometown,looked submissive and sincere He was like he couldn’t talk well.In the ancestorial temple, or at court,his speeches --were like impromptus,voluble but cautious.

10.2 朝與下大夫言,侃侃如也,與上大夫言,誾誾(yin誾讀銀)如也.君在,踧踖(cu-ji踧踖粵讀促跡)恭敬而局促不安的樣子,義同,與與如也.

本章記孔子在朝廷遇上接下有別.

孔子在朝廷上和下大夫交談時,態度温和愉快,和上大夫交談時,中正而適度,國君臨朝時,態度恭敬,威儀適度而合乎禮.

侃侃:剛毅正直,和樂貌; 誾誾如:中正態度,和說而諍; 踧踖:恭敬貌; 與與如:威儀中適貌;

During intermission at court,when Confucius was talking among a group of lower rank officers,he was relaxed and affable. When he was talking among a group of higher rank officers, he conveyed his ideas with justice and gave forthright admonition in a pleasant manner. When the head of state was present, Confucius was acting meticulously cautious yet according to the norm.

10.3 君召使擯,色勃如也.足躩(jue躩粵讀霍)如也.揖所與立,左右手,衣前後,(chan粤讀蟬)如也.趨進,翼如也.賓退,必復命曰:賓不顧矣.

本章記孔子為使擯之禮.

魯君使孔子為接待國賓之儐相,他接見外賓,立時變為莊矜的樣子,行止謹肅,和他同立的儐相作揖互相聯緊,對左邊的揮以左手, 對右邊的揮以右手,處理迎接上的事宜.衣服整齊而飄動着.前進時,態度舒緩,賓客退了,一定向君復命,:國賓已回去了.

使擯:擯亦作儐,國有外賓,使為迎接之禮者; 勃如:變色為莊矜之貌; 躩如:擧足戒慎,不作閒步隨意之義; 所與之:謂同為儐者. 襜如:衣服修整而不亂擺動也; 翼如:如鳥舒翼,風度端雅之貌.

The prince assigned Confucius to received guests formally.His countenance was solemn,his pace were swift,he bowed left and right to those beside him,he straightened his robes in front and behind him and hastened forward,with his arms spreading like a pair of wings of a birdsoaring. When the guest had left, he would report to the prince ‘The guest is not looking backward anymore.’

10.4 入公門,鞠躬如也,如不容.立不中門,行不履閾(yu閾粵讀域),過位,色勃如也;足躩(jue躩粵讀霍)如也,其言似不足者.攝齊(齊讀支)升堂,鞠躬如也;屏氣似不息者.,降一等,逞颜色,怡怡如也;沒階趨,翼如也.復其位, 踧踖(踧踖粵讀促跡)如也.

本章記孔子在朝廷的態度

孔子進入君之朝廷的宮門時,必曲彎着身以示敬,好像宮門低窄容不下似的.不立在門正中,足不踐踏,在門限上,遇國君之位時,必立時變得很嚴肅的樣子,兩足謹慎而行,言語不敢放肆,好像話沒說完的樣子.牽着衣擺提升着它到堂上,屏着氣息沒有呼吸的樣子.出來下了一級台階,放鬆一點態度顏色,顯得和悅些,下完台階,前進稍速,顯得較舒緩像鳥兒舒展翅膀一樣,再過君位時,仍是恭恭敬敬地還有不安的樣子.

公門:君之宮門; 鞠躬:曲身示敬也; :,門限也; 過位:君在朝聽政之位,過此位,態度必立即嚴肅, 攝齊:齊讀支;提升着裳之下擺,亦言將升堂,兩手摳衣,恐失足也; 一等:即一級台階; :放也;

When Confucius entered the palace gate, he bowed low and respectfully,as if there was not enough room to admit him.,he neither stand in the middle of the gate,nor tread on the threshold

When passing the throne, his countenance was solemn, his pace began swifter, and his words were uttered so softly as if he had no breath. As he ascended the dais,he held up his robes,bowed low and held in his breath as if he dared not to breathe.

Exit coming down after descended the first steps,his countenance relaxed and bore a pleased look. From the foot of the steps he advanced rapidly with his arms spreading like wings of a bird. When again in his seat,his manner stillshowed respectful with uneasiness

10.5 執圭,鞠躬如也,如不勝,上如揖,下如授,勃如戰色,足蹜蹜如有循,享禮,有容色.私覿(di覿粵讀滴),愉愉如也.

本章述大夫為君聘間於鄰國之禮.

執着圭到鄰國聘問,必當彎腰示敬,執着圭如不勝負荷,以示謹敬.圭執於手,不超過如作揖的高度,下不過如授物之低度,要戰戰兢兢很敬肅的,擧步不可高,沿着一定的路線前進.在接受享禮時,面色要恭敬,等到私自再拜見國君,要和颜悅色的樣子.

執圭:/

,大夫聘問鄰國,執君之圭以為信; 如不勝,執圭如不勝其重,言敬謹之至也; 上如揖,下如授:言執圭與心齊,高不過揖,低不過授,過高過低皆為不敬; 戰色: 戰戰兢兢之色,莊矜也; 踏縮如有循:言稍舉前趾,曳後跟而行,足不高離於地,如足下有物,

循之而前也; 享禮:聘後獻物之禮; 容色:和悅之顏色; 私覿:(覿:會面也)聘禮既畢,使臣再齋已物於次日以私禮拜見於所使之國國君; 愉愉:顏色和悦之貌.

Grasping the Gui (an official tablet of jade,an elongated pinted jade held in the hands on ceremonial occasions),One should carry it meticulously respectful,bowed so cautiously as if it were too heavy and seemed unable to lift it.He raised it as if making a bow,he lowered it as if making a presentation.He expressed an awe look and dragged his feet as though he were walking along a line.When receiging a presenting a ritual gift,his countenance would become jplacid.When he came to sit in the private audience group,he should look cheerful.

10.6 君子不以紺緅飾.紅紫不以為褻服,當暑袗絺綌.必表而出之.緇衣羔裘;素衣麑裘;黄衣狐裘.褻裘長,短右袂.必有寢衣,長一身有半.狐貉之厚以居.去喪,無所不佩.非帷裳,必殺之.羔裘,玄冠不以弔.吉月,必朝服而朝.

本章記禮中衣服之規定.

孔子不把深青,絳色做领口袖口的滾邊,不把紅色紫色做居家的便服,夏天暑熱,穿粗質或細質的單衣,外出時必著內衣.冬季,裏面著黒羊皮袍,穿黑上衣,裏面穿白鹿皮袍,穿白上衣,裏面穿黃狐皮袍,家黄上衣,居家著皮裘要長,右袖口短,便於做事.蓋的被,比身體要一倍半.狐貉皮毛厚,做坐褥,除了有喪事外,大帶上佩玉飾,除了祭服是正幅帷裳外,其餘裳的腰下用斜幅裁縫.不穿黑羊裘及黒皮帽去弔喪,月之初一,必穿朝服上朝.

紺緅:深青色.緅絳: zou緅粵讀周,黑中帶紅,jiang絳粵讀鋼,紫紅); :领口袖口滾邊;

褻服:私居時所穿着的. :單衣; 絺綌:粵讀痴虢,葛之精者曰絺,粗者曰綌.[(]乃表面有花紋的紡織品,用絲作經,用棉,,毛作緯); 表而出之:謂着內衣,再着外表絺綌,出門於外,可不見其體;

緇衣:黑色上衣; 羔裘:黒羊皮之衣裘; 素衣:白色上衣; 麑裘:小鹿皮之皮裘; 狐裘:狐皮之衣裘; 褻裘:居家所穿的衣裘; :衣之袖; 寢衣:小臥被.狐貉之厚以居:(:生也),狐貉毛深厚,作為生褥,取其溫厚; :衣帶上佩玉; 帷裳:為朝祭之服,其制有正幅為之如帷也; :縫也,帷裳腰下有斜裁四幅,上狹下廣,此為古制; 吉月:正月或謂月之朔日(即初一); 玄冠:黑色禮帽.

The superior man would neither use purple or dark purplish colours for facings on his dresses,nor would he use red or violet in his underwears.In hot weather, he wore unlined linen fine or coarse jackets.but always jput on top other garments when going out.

On top of lamb-skin,he wore black.on top of fawn fur,he wore white.on top of fox skin, he wore yellow.

At home, he wore a long fur robe,with the right sleeve short.When in bed,he always in pyjamas and had his quilt which was half as longer than his body.

The thick furs of the foxor badger were for cushions.

When out of mourning,he wore all his girdle ornaments.

Except for court or sacrificial dress,his clothes must be tailored.

He did not wear lamb fur or a black cap  on a visit of condolence.

On the first day of the year,he always went to court in full court dress.   

10.7 齊必有明衣,.齊必變食,居必遷坐

本章記齋戒時之規定.

齋戒時,必穿明潔的布衣.齋戒時,必改換日常的飲食,改換日常的居臥之處.

:齋也,古人臨祭前必有齋戒; 明衣:齋戒時必沐浴,浴畢著明潔之布衣; 變食:改常食也,不飲酒不茹葷,如蒜韮之類. 遷坐:謂改換常居之處,古人齋戒必自內寢遷於外寢,外寢又稱正寢.

On days of fasting,a meticulous clean bathrobe-cloth-made clothe should be wore.Changed the food of meals and moved from the usual place to rest somewhere external.

10.8 食不厭精,膾不厭細,食饐而餲,魚餒而肉敗,不食.色惡不食,臭惡不食,失飪不食,不時不食,割不正,不食.不得其醬,不食.肉雖多,不使勝食氣.惟酒無量,不及亂.沽酒,市脯,不食,不撤薑食,不多食.祭於公,不宿肉.祭肉,不出三日.出三日,不食之矣.食不語,寢不言.雖疏食,菜羮,,,必齊如也.

本章記飲食之節.

喫飯不因精細就飽食,食肉不因肉膾(切細的肉minced)就多喫.飯菜餿臭及變味了不喫.魚爛了,肉腐了,不食.食物的顏色不正常不喫.食物臭了不喫.食物烹調不熟不食.不在進食的時候不食.肉切割的不正常不食.食物應該有醬而未有放的不喫.肉雖多,喫肉不可超過喫飯的數量,飲酒雖無一定的限量,但不可到達喝醉的程度.街上買來的酒和乾肉腩,恐怕不潔應該不喫.桌上薑食不隨菜肴撒走,不多喫.助君祭祀,分的祭肉,不隔宿再煮食.家祭中的祭肉不存留三天,超出三天就不喫它了. 喫飯時不講話,睡覺時不言談.雖然用粗飯,菜湯,瓜類的祭祀,也必定恭敬,如同祭前經過齋戒一樣的心意.

:厭饜也,足義,飽食(satiated).(饜症anorexia); :(yi饐粤讀意)食物腐敗發臭; 餿:(sou餿粤讀收,stale)臭也; :(ai餲粤讀隘/形容尿臭則讀壓)食之變味也; :(nei粤讀女,rotten)魚爛壞; :肉腐壞; 失飪:烹調未熟; 不時:不在食時(亦有解作不合時宜); 勝食氣(:,飯也):食菜肴多於食飯; 不撤薑食: 撤作决少也,每餐不乏食薑; 不宿肉:祭後胙(zuo胙粤讀造),即日分賜,不待隔日;

One would neither feel satiated on selected fine rice,nor would one feel satiated on finely minced meat.Food turned sour or mouldy,putrid fis or tainted meat,food that were discoloured with bad smell or improperly cooked,must not eat.Do not eat food that were not properly cut,do not eat those dishes without proper sauce,though there were excessive meat on the table, do not eat more meat than rice.Set no limit for wines,but stop drinking when starting to feel inebriated.Do not drink wines that were not home-made,do not eat dried meat bought from the market. After meal, ginger must not be taken away from the table,but do not eat much.

After sacrifice rites at the palace, do not keep the meat received from the ceremony overnight. The meat of other sacrifice , do not keep over three days.If kept longer ,do not eat it.Do not talk while eating and do not talk when resting in bed.

When foods, although,were coarse rice, plain vegetable soup  and simple fruits,should still need to offer a small portion of it in sacrifice with a grave and respectful spirit.

10.9 席不正不坐.

本章說坐席之儀態

坐席未按照規定放置,如方向不正,不坐.

If the sitting mat was not straight with correct positioning according to rite,, do not sit on it.

10.10 鄉人飲酒,杖者出,斯出矣.鄉人儺,朝服而立於阼階.

本章記鄉飲酒之禮.

鄉里中舉行鄉飲酒之禮時,等扶手杖的人走出了,才跟出去.鄉人舉行儺禮,驅逐瘟疫之鬼時,穿着朝服立在東階主人的位置上.

鄉人飲酒:為古代鄉飲酒之禮; 杖者:老人; 鄉人儺: (nuo儺粵讀娜)古代在腊月舉行的一種驅疫逐鬼的巫舞儀式,後演變為一種舞蹈,安化,{黑茶之鄉}之祭舞; 阼階:(zuo阼粵讀做)東階,主人位也.

In the rural drinking ceremony,the elders with staff would exit first,then followed by others.

At the rural exorcisms,invited observers should wear a court dress and stand on the eastern steps

10.11 問人於他邦,再拜而送之.康子饋藥,拜而受之.:丘未達,不敢嘗.

本章記與人交往之誠意.

問候他邦的友人之使者,必再拜送之上路.季康子派人贈送藥品,禮拜後再接受,並告來使說,()還未知藥性,不敢先嚐試.

:問候; 康子:魯國大夫.姓季孫名肥.謚曰康.又稱季康子; :贈送; 未達:不明(此指藥性);

Sending a messenger to ask about  a friend abroad,one should bow twice and see him off.

When Jikangzi sent Confucius some medicine,Confucius bowed and received it,saying:Qiu do not understand the medicine, I dare not taste it.

10.12 廐焚,退朝.:傷人乎? …不問馬.

本章記孔子對人畜輕重之分.

馬房被燒掉了,老師退朝回來,問道:有沒有傷到人呢? …沒有問及馬.

:養馬之處.jiu廐粵讀究;

Stable caught fire. Confucius came home from the court and asked:Any one hurt?

Confucius did not worry about his horses.

10.13君賜食,必正席先嘗之.君賜腥,必熟而薦之.君賜生,必畜之.侍食於君,君祭先飯.,君視之.東首,加朝服,拖紳.君命召,*俟駕行矣.

本章記事君之禮.

君賜給食物,先將席位擺正才嘗它.君賜生肉,必先煮熟,進獻於祖先.君賜生畜,必定將牠畜養起來.侍奉國君同食,在君祭時,便先喫飯.遇病臥時,君來探看,頭向東臥,身上披蓋著朝服,拖着大带,君有命來召,不等待僕人駕車,先徒步而往,趕去應命

正席先嘗:敬君之惠也; :生肉也; :以食進獻於祖廟; 君祭先飯:於君祭時,先自喫飯,若為君嘗食之義; 東首:病者臥床,首在東,君臨榻前,君正南面; 加朝服拖紳:病臥不能著衣帶,故將朝服加在身上,並把大帶拖在朝服上.以示敬意.

*(si粵讀自,等待),mo-qi万俟愎姓,qi粵讀期.

When the prince send Confucius a present of food,the master must set his mat straight and taste it first.When the rince sent him raw meat,the master would cook it and make a sacrificial offering. When the prince sent Confucius some llivestock,he would rear it. When attending a meal with the prince, while the prince performing the sacrificial ceremony, the master would taste the meal first.(to ensure that the food was safe to eat).When the master was sick and the prince came to see him,he would lie  with his head to the east,with his court dress spread across him placing the girdle over it.When being summoned by the prince,the master would go at once without waiting for his carriage to be yoked.

10.14 入太廟,每事問.

本章重出,見八佾3.15 子入大廟,論語重述孔子求知之態度.

When master entered the Grand Temple, he would ask about everything.

10.15 朋友死,無所歸.:於我殯.朋友之饋,雖車馬,非祭肉不拜.

本章記孔子交友之義.

朋友死了,無家人辦理喪葬,老師說:把柩停在我家吧,朋友的餽贈,雖有車馬之類貴重禮品,受之不拜.除非是祭肉,均不拜.(拜受祭肉以示敬重其祖)

:死者殮於棺,停柩待葬曰殯; :餽贈也.

A friend died and no one was in charge of his funeral. The master said:Leave the funeral to me.

When a friend sent the master a gift,although it might be a carriage and horses, yet, as long as it was not some sacrificial meat, the master would not bow for it.

10.16 寢不尸,居不容.*齊衰((齊衰讀支崔)),雖狎必變.見冕者,與瞽(gu音鼓),雖褻必以貌.凶服者式之.式負版者.有盛饌,必變色而作.迅雷,風烈,必變.

本章記孔子容貌以禮而變之義. 參閱9.9

仰睡時不挺直身體像死屍一樣,在家閒居時不莊肅着儀容,見到着喪服的人,雖平時很親暱不拘,必變容表示哀悼,見戴着官帽和盲者,雖是經常相見的人,必以禮貌很恭敬的待他們.如坐在車上見到穿喪服之人,憑軾以禮示敬.對手上握着國家版圖的人也憑着軾示意.朋友盛宴款待,必肅容起立表示敬謝.聽到行急雷,有暴風,必變色表示不安.

:仰臥如死屍; 齊衰:(齊衰讀支崔)喪服名稱,五服之一; :xia狎粤讀匣,親暱而不拘細節; :燕見,時常相見而親暱者,無雖行君臣之禮者; :同軾,車前橫木,人在車中,俯憑橫木以示敬者; 負版者:負邦國之版圖者; 盛饌:宴賓客之豐盛肴饌.

While sleeping, Confucius would not sleep lying down facing up like a corpse.At home, Confucius would sit at ease and not kneel on mat as if receiving guests.As he came across someone wearing a mourning-cloth,though Confucius was with his friends, he would put on a solemn expression. On seeing someone in full official dress,or a vision impaired person,though he might know him well, he would show a polite attitude to him.

When seeing a person mourning from his carriage, Confucius would bow forward to the crossbar,.

Before a gorgeous feast,Confucius would change countenance and rise up to show respect. On a sudden clap of thunder,or a violent gust of wind,Confucius would change countenance to express serious concern.  

10.17 升車,必正立執綏.車中,不內顧,不疾言,不親指.

本章記登車之容.

上車時,必正面立着把着車索登車.在車上,不回頭看,不高聲講話,不用手指東西指點.

:挽以上車之繩索; 疾言:高聲也

When Confucius mounting his carriage, he would always stand straight and grasp the cord.Within the carriage, Confucius would not look around. Neither would he speak hastily nor pointing his hands anywhere.

10.18 色斯擧矣,翔而後集. :山粱雌雉,時哉, 時哉; …子路共之,三嗅而作.

本章述孔子偕子路在山中見雉贊鳥之四警覺性.

見到人的情形不對,一擧身便飛走了.在空中廻翔細看,才飛落下來相集一起,老師說:山澗上的那些雌雉,很懂得時機啊, 很懂得時機啊. 子路拱起手來表示敬意.而那雌雉見狀即三次的舒翼下翔,便飛去了.

色斯擧矣:雉見人()色不對或環境有異常,即擧身而去了; 翔而後集:鳥廻翔審顧而後下集; 山粱:山澗水上之木橋; 拱之:兩手相合表示敬意.

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵讀灰),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai粵讀拐;gui瞶粵讀貴,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Observing the countenance,the hen pheasants rose instantly,flew around, by and by and again it settled. Confucius said:These hen pheasants on the hill-bridge! How vigilant! How vigilant!

Zilu made a respectful gesture to them,The hen pheasants spread their wings and flew away.

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