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子罕 第九篇  

2011-08-11 01:53:08|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯子罕 第九篇 共三十章

 

子罕  第九篇 共三十章

子罕 第九篇 共三十章

9.1 罕言利,與命,與仁.

本章言孔子少言利.只贊許命和仁.

孔子少言到利,只贊許命和仁的道理.

:稀少義; :稱許也;

Confucius scarcely talked about gainings.He was concerned with topics on Heaven-Mandate and benevolent-act.

9.2 達巷黨人曰:大哉!孔子!博愛而無所成名.…聞之,謂門弟子曰:吾何執? 執御乎? 執射乎? 吾執御矣!

本章記孔子聞到別人不正確的批評,*戮而答之.

達巷黨的人說:偉大的孔子?! 他學問淵博,無所不能,但沒有一項成名. …老師聽到以後,對門弟子們說:我該專執那一項呢? 專執駕車為御,還是專執射藝為射士呢?我還是專執御罷!

達巷黨:達巷,黨名,古時五百家為一黨;

無所成名:無一藝而有美名; :為人駕車; :其所執為卑也; :善射則為人上;

*:lu粵讀六,并合,戮力同心;

A member of the Daxiang society said:Great as the master Kong! He is so erudite yet has no specialty to earn him fame.

Confucius heard and spoke to his disciples:What shall I be specialized in? Shall I be specialized in driving?(as a driver) Shall I be specialized in archery?(expert to kill) I jprefer to be a driver?(driving an archery)

9.3 :麻冕,禮也;今也純,,吾從眾.拜下,禮也,今拜乎上,泰也;雖達眾,吾從下.

本章說禮當從恭儉為是.

老師說:祭禮中戴細麻冠,這是古禮,現今用黑絲做的,比較儉省,我當跟從大家如此.臣對君行禮拜於堂下,這是古禮,現今都拜於堂上,這樣太驕了些,雖不同於眾,我還是在堂下拜.

麻冕:以細麻為冠冕; :黑絲; 拜下:臣與君行禮,當拜於堂下,君辭之,乃升成拜;

Confucius said:A linen cap is prescribed by the norm of rite.Now a black silk cap is generally worn. As it is thrifty, I agree with the majority.

To bow at the lower hall is prescribed by the rules of ceremony. Now,it is generally performed after ascending the hall. How presumptuous! Contradictory to the majority it may be, I still bow at the lower hall.

9.4 絕四: 毋意,毋必,毋固,毋我.

本章言孔子斷絕了四種不正確的觀念.

老師斷絕了四種不正確的觀念,沒有主觀性的妄猜, 沒有武斷性之必然, 沒有固執之己見, 沒有偏私之心.

:臆測; :肯定; :固執; :私心.

…In order to focus on the transformation of the self, Confucius is said to have freed himself from four things: opinionatedness,dogmatism, obstinancy,and egotism.

9.5 畏於:文王旣沒,文不在兹乎? 天之將喪斯文也,後死者,不得與於斯文也;天之未喪斯文也,匡人其如予何?

本章記孔子臨危難,尚以天命自持不懼以服弟子.

老師在遭圍攻而生戒心,他說:文王已死,大家的禮樂制度文化,不是就在這裡麽?如果天意要喪失這華夏文化,那麼我這個後死的人,也不會知道這些文化了.如果天意不要喪失這些文化,人能把我怎樣呢?

明朝<<石刻聖跡圖:匡人解圍>>:孔子國路過國的,陽虎()曾施暴于此地.孔子長相類似陽虎,人就把他圍困了五天.弟子們很害怕.孔子:文王既然已經去世,天意把道德文化都放在我這裡,人能把我怎麼樣呢?…人說:“我們誤認為是陽虎.”遂即解除圍困.放了孔子師徒.

:有戒心;

:[春秋]衛國陳國之間一地名,在今河北省 長垣縣西南,後漢書郡國志長垣縣有匡.陽虎曾施暴政於匡,孔子貌似陽虎,匡人見孔子,以為是陽虎,誤圍而攻之;

斯文:禮樂制度; 後死者:孔子指自己.

…Confucius’faith in the survivability of the culture that he cherished and the workability of the approach to taching that he propounded was so steadfast that he convinced his followers as well as himself that Heaven was on their side.When Confucius’life was threatened in [Kuang],Confucius said:Since the death of 文王does not the mission of [culture]rest here in me? If Heaven intends this [culture]to be destroyed,those who come after me will not be able to have any part of it.If Heaven does not intend this [culture]to be destroyed,then what can the men of Kuangdo to me?

9.6 大宰問於子貢:夫子聖者與?何其多能也? …子貢曰:固天縱之將聖,又多能也.…聞之曰:大宰知我乎?吾少也賤,故多能鄙事.君子多乎哉?不多也!…:子云:吾不試,故藝.

本章述孔子多才多藝.

大宰子貢:你們的老師是位聖人吧?不然他怎會多才多藝呢? …子貢說:這本是天意他成為大聖,使他這樣的多才多藝.…老師聽到了說:大宰知道我麼?我小時候微賤,所以能做很多粗俗的事,一個君子亦多才多藝嗎?不必要多才多藝的!…牢說:老師不是說過:我不為世用,所以才有時間去學習這些才藝的.

大宰:官名; :不為限量也; 將聖:大聖也; 不試:不用,言不為世所用;

:,,子開.孔子弟子;

子貢:國人.(貢本作贛),姓端木名賜.孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.,.嘗說出師敵以存.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

A senior minister asked Zigong:Is your master a sage?

Why is he so versatile?

Zigong replied:As Heaven decided him to become a sage,he istherefore versatile by nature.

When Confucius heard it, he said:Does the minister know me? I was destitute when young.Therefore I was able do many primitive jobs.Does a noble person need to learn so much? Not so!

Lao quoted the Master,‘Confucius says,having no job,I therefore acquired more arts.’

9.7 :吾有知乎哉?無知也.有鄙夫問於我,空空如也;我叩其兩端而竭焉.

本章言孔子行乎中道,人有疑問,亦必釋其兩端之疑而歸於中道.

老師說:我有什麼特別有所知嗎? 我是沒有的.(一切都順乎天理中道去想和去做); 如果有一個世俗之人來問我,他是那樣的無知,我一定探問他對事理看法偏差的兩端的懷疑沒有了為止.(使之一切歸乎中道).

鄙夫:鄙俗之人; 空空:無知之荒貌; :探問也; 兩端:一切事理之兩頭,或兩邊之義;

Confucius said:Do I have knowledge? No,I don’t!  If a vulgar person asked me a question so abstract and imbecile,I shall infer the extremes of his enquiry and do my best to think of a moderate answer.  

Connotation: Answering a fool according to his folly.

9.8 :鳳鳥不至,河不出圖,吾已矣夫?

本章孔子歎道之不行.

老師說:鳳鳥不來,黄河也不出圖,我要實行的王道恐將沒有希望了!

鳳鳥出,河出圖皆聖王出世道承乎之象徵.

Confucius said:The phoenix ceases arrive.The yellow River presents no more chart.It is all over with my ambition!

9.9 見齊衰者(ci-cui齊衰粵讀支崔),冕衣裳者,與瞽者(gu粵讀鼓),見之,雖少必作,過之必趨.

本章述孔子見到有喪者,在位者,傷殘者,必以禮.

老師看見穿喪服的人,穿禮服禮冠的官員,和盲者,看到了他們雖然是少年,亦必起立,或走過他的旁邊,亦必走快些(以不妨礙其行)

齊衰:( ci-cui齊衰粵讀支崔)喪服名稱.五服之一也; 冕衣裳;制服;

:gu粵讀鼓.瞎人也;

When Confucius saw a person wearing mourning clothes,or in official robes of the state, or a vision impaired person,he would always rise up although they may be younger; if Confucius was to pass them,he would always speed up his pace 

9.10 颜淵喟然歎曰:仰之彌高,鑽之彌堅,瞻之在前,忽焉在後,夫子循循然善誘人,博我以文,約我以禮.欲罷不能,旣竭吾才,如有所立.卓爾,雖欲從之,末由也已!

本章說顏淵贊歎孔子之道高深.

顏淵歎說:老師之道,越仰望着越覺高遠.越鑽研越覺深堅.忽覺就在眼前,一下又覺遠在背後看不見了.老師循着程序逐步引導我們.先教我們博通於文章典籍,又拿禮來約束我們的言行,使得我們想停下來也不能.已經竭盡我的才能和氣力,像已經有了些成就,但再一看老師的道,峻高突出那種崇偉樣子,我又覺得無路可達呢!

喟然:歎聲; :益也; :深探之也; 循循然:有次序貌; :引進; 卓爾:峻高突出之貌; 末由也已:言無路可從之也.

顏淵:521-490顏名回.字子淵,亦謂顏淵.魯國人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好學.問一知十,孔子自認不如.回不遷怒,不貳過,貧居陋巷,(音單)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其樂.孔子稱其賢.早卒,後世尊為復聖.

Yan Yuan exclaimed with a sigh:The more I look up, the higher it soars, the deeper I drill, the harder it becomes,I see it in front of me and suddenly,its behind. Gradually and systematically, the master induces my interest on it.(his doctrine).It has broadened me with culture and restrained me with the norms of rite.I am unable to stop even if I want to. Having exerted all my ability and thought to have acquired some outstandins,there still seems deeds standing un-surmountable before me.Although I have long for reaching it, I can find no way to do so.

9.11 疾病,子路使門人為臣,病間曰:久矣哉!由之行詐也.無臣而為有臣,吾誰欺? 欺天乎?且予與其死於臣之手也,無寧死於二三子之手乎?且予縱不得大葬,死於道路乎?

本章述孔子對自己死後喪葬,不違於禮.

老師病重,子路使門弟們為家臣,當孔子病稍輕時, (孔子知道這事):我很久沒有家臣了,由在做不實騙人的事啊!我無家臣而做着有家臣,我欺騙誰? 我欺騙天嗎?而且我與其死在家臣的手上,倒不如死在門弟子手上呢! 我縱然得不到用卿大夫的葬禮,難道我會死在道路上嗎?

:家臣; 病間:病稍輕; 行詐:用詐騙方法欺人; 大葬:以君臣之禮葬;

:姓仲名由字子路一字季路:魯國卞人,孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.衛大夫孔悝(kui粵讀灰),以為邑宰,時出公在位,孔悝母伯姬與豎良夫謀立.太子(kuai粤讀拐)(gui粵讀貴)廹孔悝與蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公奔.子路入,見蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

When Confucius was very ill,Zilu ordered some disciples to act as butlers and retainers.During a spell of better moment,Confucius said: Long time have I been without retainers.You’s(Zilu) act was deceitful.Pretending that there are retainers while I have none.Whom do I deceive? Do I deceive Heaven? Moreover, should I die in the hands of retainers, would it not be better to die in the hands of my disciples? And if I do not qualify for a Grant burial (because I do not have retainers),will I then drop dead on the roadside?

9.12 子貢曰:有美玉於斯,韞匱(匚中貴亦寫作賣)而藏諸?求善賈而沽諸? …子曰:沽之哉!沽之哉!我待賈者也.

本章言孔子蓄德待用於世.

子貢說:有塊美玉在此,用匣子藏着呢還是找個好價錢賣掉呢? …老師說:賣掉它吧! 賣掉它吧! 我也是等着好價賣的啊!

韞匱:收藏也; 善賈:高價(賈同價); :賣也;

子貢: 衛國人.(貢本作贛),姓端木名賜.孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於齊.

Zigong said:A beautiful jade as such,should I hide it in a hard-wood jewelry box or seek a good price to sell it?

Confucius said:Sell it,sell it. I am waiting for a good merchant to buy me too.

9.13欲居九夷,或曰:,如之何? …子曰:君子居之,何陋之有?

本章言孔子欲往推行大道於蠻荒.

老師想到東方九夷之地去居住,有人說:那裡文化太落後,怎麽可以呢? …老師說:如果有道的君子去居住,那還有什麼落後呢?

九夷:東方有九種羣夷之族; :文化落後.

Confucius wanted to venture and live among the 9 primitive tribes at the east.Someone said:What would you do with such an uncivilized territory?

Confucius said:When a civilized person is living in it, How can it still be uncivilized?

9.14:吾自,然後樂正,,頌各得其所.

本章述孔子修正了樂和雅頌.

老師說:我從衛國回到魯國後,把音樂訂正了,使雅和頌的詩樂,恢復了原來的體制規定.

樂正雅頌:訂正音樂,雅頌等之禮制合於規定;

Confucius said: Only after I returned Lu from Wei,were musics amended,Imperial songs and Praise songs sorted out properly.

9.15:出則事公卿,入則事父兄,喪事不敢不勉,不為酒困,何有於我哉?

本章言奉公事親,治喪,慎酒之要.

老師說:出仕事於公卿,居家事奉父兄,治喪不敢不盡其禮,不為酒之過量而亂,這些對我有何困難呢?

:出仕; :居家; 酒困:為酒所亂;

Confucius said:At work,serving the superiors; at home,taking care of parents and brothers;dare not to neglect and not doing the utmost in funerals,do not indulge in wine;Do I have any problem with the above?  

9.16在川上,:逝者如斯夫?舍不晝夜.

本章孔子警時不居也.

老師站在河岸上說:光陰就像流走的河水,不分晝夜地無止息的流逝.

:去也; :同捨義.

Standing on a riverbank,Confucius said:Time passes like water flowing in the river.Not ceasing day or night.

Connotation:time passes like river of no return.

9.17 :吾未見好德如好色者也.

本章孔子寓意人多於好色而薄於德.

老師說:我沒有看見過像喜好美色那樣喜好道德的人.

明朝<<石刻聖跡圖:醜次同車>>:孔子蒲地反回國後,住在大夫蘧伯玉.一天,衛靈公出游,他與夫人同乘前面的車.孔子乘後面的車.孔子生氣地說:我從來沒見過喜好美德像喜好美色一樣的人;…于是孔子便離開了.

Confucius said:I have not seen a person who is fond of virtue as fond of beauty.

9.18 :譬如為山,未成一簣,,吾止也.譬如平地,雖覆一簣,,吾往也.

本章勉人力行.進止皆由自量而為.

老師說:譬如堆一土山,只少了一竹籠的土未能完成,這停止下來,是由我自己.譬如在平地上,只堆上了一籠土,也繼續不停的堆上去,這也是由我自己決定的啊!

:,土籠,盛泥土之竹器;

Confucius said:As if building a mountain,should I have stopped at the last basket of earth that would finish it,its my decision of doing so.As in leveling the ground, if I keep on going even after  laying down only the first basket of earth, It is my decision to proceed.

Connotation: people should be able to judge the limit of their ability.

9.19 :語之而不,其回也與?

本章贊美顏回努力不懈.

老師說:告訴那些道理便能力行不懈的人,那只有顏回了吧?

:告也; :懈怠也.

顏回: 521-490顏名回.字子淵,亦稱顏淵.孔子弟子.孔子稱其賢(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..後世尊為後聖.回不遷怒:不將怒氣遷移到別人身上; 不貳過:不再犯已犯過的過失錯誤.

Confucius said:He who excerts all my teachings,only Hue (Yan Yuan) can do.

9.20 顏淵:惜乎吾見其進也,吾未見其止也.

本章惜顏淵()早夭,美其努力不止.

老師說到顏回,歎道:可惜啊!我只看見他努力前進,我沒看見他有一時的停止呢.

惜乎:此可惜顏回之早夭;

顏淵: 521-490顏名回.字子淵,亦謂顏淵.魯國人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好學.問一知十,孔子自認不如.回不遷怒,不貳過,貧居陋巷,(音單)食瓢(音嫖),而不改其樂.孔子稱其賢.早卒,後世尊為復聖.

Confucius said of Yan Yuan:What a pity he died so young! I have seen him persistently advances.Never have I seen him stop doing so.

9.21 :苗而不秀者,有矣夫?秀而不實者,有矣夫?

本章孔子歎為學者,淺深兩個學程,皆未底於成.

老師說:禾苗已生而未能開花,這樣情形有的是啊,禾旣開花而未能結穗, 這樣情形有的是啊!

苗而不秀:穀已生禾而未開花; 秀而不實:禾已開花而未結穗.

Confucius said:There are sprouts springing up but never come to flowering.There are also flowers never come to  bearing any fruits.

9.22:後生可畏,焉知來者之不如今也;四十,五十,而無聞焉,斯亦不足畏也已.

本章勉人當及時進德修業.

老師說:年少之人(指年富力強,努力進取)是可敬畏的.安知道後來的一輩人不如現在的這一輩呢?假使到了四五十歲仍然沒有什麼成就的話,那就也沒有什麽值得敬畏的了.

後生:年少後進之人; :(副詞);

Confucius said:Awe is due to the youth.Yet we can foretell if they are incompatible with us today. A person remains unheard of at forty or fifty,can not be awesome!

9.23:法語之言,能無從乎?改之為貴!巽與之言,能無說乎?繹之為貴,說而不繹,從而不改,吾未如之何也已矣!

本章言知行當並重.如知而不行,知亦徒然.

老師說:有理法的正言告誡,能不聽從嗎?要能真正改正過來才可貴.婉言異語相勸的話,能不喜悅嗎?要能尋思其中的要義所在才可貴.只知喜悅的而不去尋思,只知聽從而不改正,我就對他沒有辦法了.

法語:正正經經告誡之辭; :同悅; :尋繹其要義所在; 巽與之言::恭順也,婉然相勸之辭;

Confucius said:Rules of the Law, who dares not to observe? It is however praisable to those who observe it and reform themselves.Dissident are elquent to use pleasing words.Who are not interested to listen? It is praisable to those who like to listen andcan ponder it.For those who listen without pondering, observe rules but do not reform themselves,I do not know how to teach them.

9.24:主忠信,毋友不如己者.過則勿憚改.

本章重出,已見學而篇1.8

Confucius said:Bearing  faithfulness and trustworthiness as main principle,do not keep friends that are not compatible to yourself.When faults occur,do not fear to correct it.

9.25:三軍可奪帥也.匹夫不可奪志也.

本章言人之守志不能移.

老師說:三軍之多,可以把他的主帥擄奪過來,一個人之守志不移,誰也奪不了.

三軍:軍隊之通稱; 匹夫:普通之人;

江山易改,禀性難移.

Confucius said:An whole army can be deprived of  their commander. An a single ordinary person can not he deprive of his/her will.

Connotation:A person’s natural temperament is unchangeable.

9.26:衣敝緼袍,與衣狐貉(貉讀殼)者立而不恥者,其由也與?不忮不求,何用不臧(臧讀裝)? …子路終身誦之; …子曰:是道也,可足以臧?

本章孔子子路亦勉他勿以小善自滿.

老師說:穿着破舊的棉袍,和穿着狐貉皮裘的人同站在一起,而不覺可恥的,只有仲由能夠吧?詩經上有這兩句:不去嫉害也不貪求,無論用在什麼地方不好呢? …子路常誦這兩句詩,老師說:這種做人起碼的道理,那能算是善呢?

敝緼袍:破舊的絮袍; 狐貉:貉音殼,亦叫狗獾(獾讀灌)badger形似狐,身較肥,尾較短.以狐貉之皮為裘者,衣之貴美也; :嫉人而欲加害之; :臧音裝,善也.

Confucius said:Wearing a tattered and quilted robe,standing by the side of a fur wearing person and would not feel ashame of it,who else but You(Zilou).

(The book of Poetry)‘Free of Jealousy and greed,how can it be not perfect’;Thereafter, Zilu for the rest of his life kept reciting it.Confucius said:Such are by no means sufficient to achieve perfect virtue.

9.27:嵗寒,然後知松柏之後凋也.

本章以松柏喻君子之節義,不隨俗轉移.

老師說:到歲末寒冷時,才知道松柏是在眾草最後凋零的.

:彫零衰落;

Confucius said:Only in the cold season,do we know that the pine and cypress are the last to fade.

9.28:知者不惑,仁者不憂,勇者不懼.

本章言知仁勇之德修養所得之境界.

老師說:有智德的人不會迷惑.有仁德的人不會憂慮.有勇德的人不會畏怯.

:智者;

Confucius said:Wise people have no doubts.Benevolent people have no worries,brave people have no fears.

9.29:可與共學,未可與共適道, 可與適道,未可與立,可與立,未可與權.

本章分別各人道德修養上的差別.

老師說:可以和他一起學習,未必可以和他一同向道, 可以和他一同向道, 未必可以和他一同立定正道不變. 可以和他一同立定在正道上,未必和他能同樣的對事物之權宜處理

適道:適者往也,即向道; :立志堅定不移; :秤錘也.權衡輕重緩急而處理之得宜也.

Confucius said:There people we can be trained but can not work together.There are others we can work together but we may not achieve success together.There are people we can achieve success together,but we ca not have the same ranking of power like each other.

9.30 唐棣之華,偏其反而.豈不爾思,室是遠而. …子曰:未之思也,夫何遠之有?

本章言道不遠人,思則得之之義.

[詩上說]唐棣的花,翩翩地翻動着,心裡難道不想念你嗎?但是唐室相隔太遠了.…老師說:只是沒有想念罷了,如真的在想念,有什麽遠呢?

{唐棣之是遠而}:此四句?逸詩; 唐棣:樹名,亦稱棠棣, (山樹如櫻桃樹,郁李樹等);:花也; :同翩,:同翻,翩翻:花枝動摇之貌也.

A poem reads ‘How the flowers of the Asphnphum flutter and turn? Do  I think of  you? But you are so far away!’

Confucius criticised the poem:I do not understand this poem.How can it be too far to miss someone? Just not thinking, thats all!

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