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述而 第七篇  

2011-08-11 16:20:05|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯述而 第七篇  共三十七章

 

述而 第七篇  共三十七章

 

7.1:述而不作,信而好古,竊比於我老彭.

本章孔子自明有德無位,傳說舊聞而已.

老師說:僅傳說舊聞而不創作.對於古代的文物制度,篤信而且喜愛.私自比擬那商朝的老彭.

:傳說舊聞; :創始義,如周公之制禮作樂; 信而好古:信於古而好之; 竊比:私自比擬也;

老彭:二說./包氏本戴記注老彭初人()賢大夫,/王弼注老是老聃(老子李耳)之大史,彭祖,帝賢臣.

Confucius said: Just to convey and not to innovate; Trust and fond of only the ancient Doctrines,I would in private level  myself with Lao Peng 

7.2:默而識之,學而不厭,誨人不倦,何有於我哉?

本章孔子以此三事自謙.

老師說:不言而存於心,努力學而不厭足,教人終不怠倦,這三事我那能全做到呢?

默而識之:謙遜博學; 何有於我?:那些會存於我?

Confucius said:To be quiet (modest) on one’s erudition,,never ever feel sick or tired of studying,teaching student without weariness; have I ever achieved any of them?

7.3:德之不修,學之不講,聞義不能徙,不善不能改,是吾憂也.

本章說孔子憂修身要有日新之功,自警不達之心.

老師說:品德未加修養,學問不去講習,聽到義事不能遷徙而從之,已知道能改善的又不去改過來,這些都是我的憂懼啊!

:治義,修養也; :遷也,遷而從也;

Confucius said:unable to trim one’s conduct virtuously,unable to

advocate/practice what one has learnt,unable to change when told the correct way,, unable to rectify and improve for the best; these are things that worry me.

…These were the things that cause Confucius’concern:…failure to cultivate virtue,failure to go deeply into what I have learned, inability to move up to what I have heard  to be right and inability to reform myself when I have defects.

7.4之燕居,申申如也,夭夭如也.

本章記孔子閒居氣象.

老師在無事閒居的時候,容態舒暢,身心輕安.

燕居:閒居無事; 申申:容態舒暢; 夭夭:身心輕安.

When Confucius was at ease at home,he dressed up neatly, relaxing comfortably.

7.5:甚矣! 吾衰也.久矣!吾不復夢見周公.

本章孔子自歎衰老之象.

老師說:我已衰老了,很久了,我不再夢見周公啦!

夢見周公:周公旦,武王之弟.言不能行周公之道,亦不復夢見了.

周公:,周公旦,西周武王之弟.成王之叔.武王,成王,周公攝政而遭,,三叔忌之.作流言以撼公.周公避居東,作鸱鴞(chi-xiao鸱鴞痴囂,似黄雀,小嘴尖如錐)之詩以貽王.王悟其非,故迎周公.三叔皆懼,殷裔武庾(yu,字本義露天的穀倉).周公東征,武庾,誅貶三叔,滅國五十,奠定東南.歸而改定官制.創制禮法,之文物.因以大備,後復營洛邑為東都.召公奭(shi,字苯義盛大也)分陝而治.

Confucius said:Too much already! How feeble have I become! Its been so long since I could dream of Duke of Zhou again.

7.6:志於道,據於德,依於仁,游於藝.

本章說學者所學之事.

老師說:立志向道,據守着德,不違於仁,游習於藝.

:據守; :不違; :游習;

Confucius taught:Have an ambition to become virtue, stand firm on keeping a good conduct,bearing the principle of benevolent,enjoy the learning of the 6Arts.

7.7:自行束脩以上,吾未嘗無誨焉.

本章記孔子有教無類也.

老師說:凡是帶着一點肉脯的見面禮來,我沒有不給予教導啟發的.

束脩:一束十塊肉脯.

Confucius said:Those who volunteer to come to learn and brought me a present of  bundle dried meat, I have not rejected teaching anyone!

7.8:不憤不啟,不悱不發,擧一隅不以三隅反,則不復也.

本章說誨人之法

老師說:心裡未通而想求通的,我不去啟示他.不想說說不出來的,我不去開導他,如擧出一角,他不能推想到其他三角,就不再教導於他了.

:心求通而未得; :口欲言而未能; :一角;若物之方者,有四隅; 不復:不再教之也.

Confucius said:Those do not know and not eager to know, I will not teach. Those do not speak out and express themselves, I do not enlight.  I point at a corner,if unable to infer from it the other three corners,I do not want to teach them again.   

…What Confucius demanded of his students was the willingness to learn:…I do not enlighten anyone who is not eager to learn,nor encourage anyone who is not anxious to put his ideas into words.

7.9食於有喪者之側,未嘗飽也.於是日哭,則不歌.

本章記孔子弔喪能盡哀.

老師在有喪事人家一邊喫飯,從不喫飽.

老師在這天吊喪哭了,便不歌唱.

When Confucius eats aside of a mourner, he would never eat a meal in full.Confucius would not sing in the same day should he had wept earlier.

7.10 顏淵:用之則行,舍之則藏,惟我與爾有是夫!…子路:子行三軍,則誰與?…:暴虎馮河(ping粵讀憑,義徒步過河),死而無誨者,吾不與也,必也臨事而懼,好謀而成者也.

本章孔子讚美行藏有道,子路好勇而無謀.

老師對顏淵說:如被用於時,就行道於世,如被捨棄時,就藏道於身,只有我和你能這樣的啦! …子路問:如果老師统领三軍之事,將要誰一同去? …老師說:空手去搏虎,不用舟楫去渡河,死而不悔的人,我不和他一同.一定要能遇事謹戒小心,用計劃去作决定的人,才和他一起去.

暴虎:徒手搏虎; 馮河:ping粵讀憑,徒步涉水.

顏淵: 521-490.子淵.國人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好學.問一知十,孔子自認不如.不遷怒,不貳過,貧居陋巷,一簞食(dan;古時竹飯碗)一瓢飲(piao,剖開的葫蘆以盛水),而不改其樂.孔子稱其賢.早卒,後世尊為復聖.

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Confucius spoke with Yan Yuan:‘Be active when talent is needed. Be reclusive  when they are not wanted.’only you and I can attain to that.

Zilu asked the master: If you were to command an army, Whom would you take with?

Confucius said:Those who would fight a tiger bare-handed or cross a river in barefoot,prepare to die without regrets, are all out of my list. I would take a man who is cautious in every respects  and could succeed due to his good strategy.

7.11:富而可求也,雖執鞭之士,吾亦為之;如不可求,從吾所好.

本章言富不強求,當知命樂道.

老師說:富若可求的話,就是執鞭的賤職,我也去做.如不可以強求,只有隨我所喜愛的做了.

執鞭之士:,事也.操鞭賤職也.

Confucius said:If wealth could be obtained in a proper way, even though it was a groom cleaning low job,I would take it.If wealth could not be obtained in a proper way,then I would follow the like of my heart.(and to stay poorhappily) 

7.12之所慎:(),,.

本章記孔子所最謹慎之事.

老師最謹慎的有三事:齋戒,戰爭,疾病.

:如齋,祭前齋戒靜心少慮;:作戰,生死之爭鬥.

Confucius was very cautious on these matters

:Fasting rite, Warfare and diseases.

7.13 聞韶,三月不知肉味,:不圖為樂之至於斯也!

本章記孔子陶醉於韶樂.

老師在齊國聽到了,三月來不知道肉味.他說:我真想不到音樂感人會到這樣的境地!

<<史記:孔子世家>>,516,孔子來到齊國,向主管音樂的太師學習.當他聽了傳說中的舞樂{},沉醉其中,竟然三個月喫肉也不察覺肉的味.

:時舞樂的章名.

When Confucius heard Shao (music) in Qi, for three months thereafter, he was unable to distinguish the taste of meat.

Confucius said: The music was so perfect which had gone beyond my expectation!

7.14 冉有:夫子為衛君乎? …子貢曰:!吾將問之. …入曰:伯夷 叔齊,何人也? …:古之賢人也. …:怨乎? …:求仁而得仁,又何怨? …出曰:夫子不為也.

本章明人對得失必以其道.

冉有:老師會贊助君麽?…子貢:是啊!我將去問這事.進去了,問道:伯夷 叔齊是怎樣的一種人呢?…老師說:古時的賢人啊!…子貢:他們(伯夷叔齊)讓了位之後,心裡會有怨恨嗎?…老師說:他們(讓位)為的求仁.而得到了仁,有什麽怨恨呢?…子貢出來,:老師不會贊助君的.

伯夷:史有二人,本章指的是一/孤竹君 墨胎初之子,或作.其謚也(死後封号).其父將死,遺命立其弟叔齊.父卒,叔齊伯夷.伯夷:父命也;遂逃去.叔齊亦不肯立,繼而逃.周武王,伯夷 叔齊叩馬而諫,及滅得天下,夷齊兄弟二人恥食.隱於首陽山,採薇而食,遂餓死; /伯夷 虞舜時為秩宗(官名,主次秩尊卑),典三禮(天神,地祇,人鬼之儀),:有能典朕三禮,(众人)伯夷.

叔齊:孤竹君 墨胎初之子,,或作.公達.其諡也.父卒,與兄伯夷互讓位而逃.

:,贊助義.君即衛出公;靈公逐其太子荊聵,靈公卒,人立荆聵之子.是為出公.人納荆聵,人拒之.孔子.弟子不知孔子亦贊助,以子拒父之事.子路于此衛國政變{孔悝之難}中遇害.

冉有:522-489魯人,字子有,(ran),亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰. 參閱11.15

子貢:衛國人.(貢本作贛),姓端木名賜.孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於齊.

Ran You asked:Do our master agree with Prince of Wei?

Zigong replied:Well,I shall ask him.

Zigong went in and asked: Boyi and shuqi,what were they?

Confucius said : Ancient sages were they!

Zigong asked: Did they feel chagrin? (abdicated their throne and stay reclusively for the rest of their lives)

Confucius said:They sought perfect virtue,and they got it.Why would they feel chagrin?

Zigong came out and said:Our master does not agree with Prince Wei, therefore will not assist him.(Prince of Wei abdicated his throne and usurped his son years later )

7.15 :飯疏食飲水,曲肱(gong雩讀轟,肩到肘的部位)而枕之,樂亦在其中矣,不義而富且貴,於我如浮雲.

本章說安貧樂道之事.

老師說:喫粗糙的飯,喝白水,彎曲着手臂當枕頭,心安理得樂趣也在其中.如果用不合道理的方法得到富貴,對我來說,好比天上浮雲一般.

飯疏食:疏即粗飯也; 曲肱:彎着手臂

Confucius said: Eating simple food, drinking plain water,bending my arm as pillow to sleep on,I can find happiness in them already.Fame and fortune secured the crooked way, are to me as floading clouds.(disappearing soon)

7.16 :加我數年,五十以學易,可以無大過矣.

本章言讀易經的重要.

老師說:假使再過幾年,研讀易經到五十歲,可以沒有大的過失了.

:同假;

Confucius said:If add a few more years on me,as I reached my studying of the I-ching at my 50 years of age,I might be then free from making errors.

7.17 所雅言:,,執禮;皆雅言也.

本章述孔子用雅言誦詩執禮.

老師所說標準話的:誦詩,讀書,執行禮事,都必用標準的正言.

雅言:又稱正言.即標準話; 詩書執禮:言誦詩讀書相禮之事.

The graceful language Confucius advocated to use (was considered to be the proper language).The Book of Poetry, The book of History, as well as practicing the ritual arts,they all used graceful language. 

7.18 葉公孔子子路,子路不對.:女奚不曰:其為人也,發憤忘食,樂以忘憂,不知老之將至云爾.

本章孔子自述好學樂道精神.

葉公子路孔子的為人.子路不知怎答.老師知了說:你為什麼不這樣地說:他的為人,好學發憤起來,連飯都忘了喫,樂於道而忘去一切憂愁煩惱.連自己已經要衰老也不知道,這麼說罷了.

葉公:諸梁,子高.國大夫.食邑於.僭稱[](越規自号).

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

The Duke of Ye asked Zilu about Confucius. Zilu did not reply him.

Confucius said:Why did you not say‘he is a man forgets to eat when he is anxiously pursuing his studies;who is so happy that he forgets his sorrow; and he does not even old age is coming on soon ’…just quote that will do!

…An autobiography spoken by Confucius himself…Why did you not simply say something to this effect: he (Confucius) is the sort of man who forgets to eat when he engages himself in vigorous pursuit of learning, who is so full of joy that he forgets his worries,and who does not notice that old age is coming on?

7.19 :我非生而知之者,好古敏以求之者也.

本章孔子闢人誤以為是生知.乃好學努力以得的.

老師說:我不是生下來就知道一切道理的.乃是我喜歡古代文物制度,努力勤求而來的.

:勉力勤行.

Confucius said: I am not born-intelligent.I am only fond of ancient culture and keen to excel myself on it.

7.20 不語:,,,.

本章述孔子以中道教人,不說奇異之事,無益於道.

老師不誨:怪異,強力,(bei粤讀背,義違反),神教這些事情.

:怪幻奇異的事; :靠力大; :悖道而行之事; :迷信神靈之事.

Confucius would not talk about:Weirdness,Forcefulness,Anomaly or Superstition.

7.21 :三人行必有我師焉.擇其善者而從之,其不善者而改之.

此章言學無常師.

老師說:三人同行,必有可當我老師的在其中.取他們善良的從而學之.看見他們當中有不良的,如我有相同的就改正過來.

三人行:亦可作為虛數,道途偶然所見之也.

Confucius said:When three of us are walking along, I am certain to find 2 teachers whom I can learn of among us. Select the good samples to follow and the bad to rectify if I were the same.

7.22:天生德於予,桓魋(tui退)其如予何?

本章明孔子仁者不憂.

老師說:天既賦予我這樣的德性,桓魋能把我怎樣?!

明朝<<石刻聖跡圖:宋人伐木>>:孔子國途經,在大樹底下與弟子們演練.國司馬桓魋想害孔子.命人伐掉大樹.弟子門勸孔子趕快離開. 孔子:“上天把德行賦予我,向魋能把我怎麼樣?”

桓魋:(tui退,字本義赤熊)國司馬向魋,其為宋桓公之後,故稱桓魋.孔子與弟子大樹下習禮,桓魋伐其樹.孔子去之.弟子曰:可以遬(同速,義窘迫也).孔子特語本章記該事.

Confucius said: Heaven bestowed virtue upon me,what could Huan Tui able to do on me?!

7.23:二三以我為隱乎?吾無隱乎爾! 吾無行而不與二三子者,是丘也.

本章明聖道無詭異之處,總在日常生活中的體悟.

老師說:諸位以為我有什麽隱匿的麽?我沒有隱而不宣的,我有那一種行動不跟諸位在一起的呢?這樣就是我啊!

: 隱匿不言;

Confucius said:Some of my student thought that I have things concealing from them.I have nothing to hide from anyone.I have done nothing not openly with them,this is Qiu.(Confucius’name)

7.24 以四教.,,,.

本章明進德修身主要四項科目.

老師以四項科目教導人:詩書禮樂,道德品行,存心忠厚,待人信實.

:詩書禮樂; :道德品行;

Confucius had 4 subjects in his curriculum: Literature;Moral philosophy,The principle of faithfulness,the policy of honesty.

7.25 :聖人吾不得而見之矣!得見君子者斯可矣! …子曰:善人吾不得而見之矣!得見有恒者斯可矣! 亡而為有,虛而為盈,約而為泰,難乎有恒矣!

本章言成德者少,有恆為入德之門.

老師說:聖人,我是看不到了.能看見君子,這也就可以了; …老師說:善人,我是看不到了,能看到有恆的人,這也就可以了,人如果把沒有扮作有,將空虛扮着充實,將窮乏扮着豐盛.這樣就難做到專心不貳其志了.

聖人:道無所不通,理無所不明,迴出於常人者;

君子: 才德出眾者; 有恆:專心不貳其志者.

Confucius said:A perfect virtuous person (A Saint),I am not able to find one.A mere virtuous person would satisfy me.

Confucius said:A perfect benevolent person, I am not able to find one,it would satisfy me should I find a person of consistency trying to accomplish it.

Nothing and yet pretending to be something,empty and yet pretending to be full,in lack of and yet pretending to have ample of,people with such characteristics are difficult to possess consistency.

7.26 釣而不綱,弋不射宿.

本章述孔子之仁.

老師釣魚用竿不用大網,射鳥不射夜宿之鳥.

:用大索繫鐵鉤橫絕中流而漁者; :以絲縷繫矢而射者; 宿:夜宿之鳥.

Confucius would only fish with hooks and not with nets.He would neither shoot a resting bird.

7.27 :蓋有不知而作之者,我無是也.多聞擇其善者而從之.多見而識之,知之次也.

本章孔子自述好學求知之道.無不知而妄作的.

老師說:就有不知而妄自造作的,我沒有這種本事.多去聽道理,選那些好的依照去實踐,多去觀察而默記心中,亦算是次於生而智的一等人了.

不知而作:不知其理而妄作; :努記不忘.

Confucius said:There are people who do not need to learn yet can make up knowledge of their own.I am not one of them.To hear plentiful,select good ones to follow,observe ample and bear them hard on mind, this will come next to people who are born-intelligent.

…Confucius frankly admitted that} he am not born endowed with knowledge(16.9生而知之者),nor did he belong to the class of men who could transform society without knowledge.Rather he reported that he used his ears widely and followed what was good in what he had heard  and used his eyes widely and retained in his mind what he had seen. His learning constituted‘a lower level of knowledge知之次也’,a level that was presumably accessible to the majority of human beings.

7.28 互鄉難與言,童子見,門人惑.:與其進也,不與其退也,唯何甚?人潔己以進,與其潔也,不保其往也.

本章記孔子有教無類.不咎既往,明教誨之道.

互鄉的人,難和他們講善之道.互鄉有個童子求見.老師接見了他.弟子們甚為不解.老師說:當贊同上進,不贊同後退,為何太過份呢?人家既然潔身自好以求上進,就當贊同他上進.並非護衛他以前之失啊!

互鄉:鄉村名,又名合鄉.一說在徐州 沛縣,有說在滕縣東,又說在嶧縣西(yi粵讀亦,嶧山山東); 王瑬四書地理考云(lou瑬粵讀漏):古今疆界不同,,,嶧三縣實屬一地.然更有說互鄉項城縣,亳州 鹿邑縣(bo粵讀博, 亳州地名,安徽,商湯時都城),還有說在睢州;本章之互鄉,其鄉風俗甚悪,難與言善; :贊同義; 潔己:修治其自身向善.

It is hard-work to chat with the people of HuXiang.(a primitive village). When a lad from Huxiang received an interview from the master, the disciples were puzzled.

Confucius said:We should encourage his progression and not to discourage him into his regression.Why be so mean?  As he had purified himself and prepared to advance, we should approve of that.We should not keep his past in mind!   

7.29 :仁遠乎哉? 我欲仁,斯仁至矣!

本章言仁道出於人心.

老師說:仁道那會遙遠地難求呢?只要我心存於仁,這個仁不是就到了我身中了嗎?

Confucius said:Is the goal of virtue really far away? I crave for virtue, Lo and behold! Virtue is here!

7.30 陳司敗:昭公知禮乎?孔子:知禮.孔子退,巫馬期而進之,:吾聞君不黨,君子亦黨乎?君取於為同姓,謂之吳孟子,君而知禮,孰不知禮? …巫馬期以告,:也幸,苟有過,人必知之.

本章謂孔子失言昭公知禮.受過不辭也.

陳司敗(國司寇):昭公知禮嗎? …孔子:知禮.孔子走後,陳司敗作揖行禮請巫馬期進來.對他說:我聽講君子人不偏私,君子人也會偏私麼? 君娶了吳國的女子是同姓,叫做吴孟子,君算是知禮,那誰還不知禮呢?…巫馬期告訴了老師,老師說:我很幸運,假使一有過,人一定就會知道的.

陳司敗:,司敗官名,即司冦; 昭公:,;

巫馬期:巫馬,,.孔子弟子; :偏私義; 君取為同姓:取同娶.魯吴皆姬姓.禮約同姓不婚; 吳孟子:昭公之夫人,女當稱吴姬,昭公諱之稱曰孟子,人謂之吴孟子乃譏諷之辭.

Chen Sibai asked whether the Duke of Zhao knew propriety?

Confucius said: He knew propriety.

Confucius left.Chen bowed to Wumaqi to come forward and said:I have heard that a man of virtue would not gang up. Would a man of virtue be partial too? The prince (Duke of Zhao)married a Wu,a same surname as himself,and titled her Wumengzi, if the Duke of Zhao knewpropriety, who would not know propriety?

When Wumaqi told Confucius about this,The master said:How lucky am I! Should I make any mistakes even as so carelessly,people are sure to know it.

7.31 與人歌而善,必使反之.而後和之.

本章記孔子好樂,工樂取人之善也.

孔子同人一起唱歌,聽人唱得好,一定請再唱一次.然後再跟着一起唱.

反之:反復之也; :相和而唱也.

When Confucius sang with a singer who could sing well,he would ask him to encore and harmonize him.

7.32:,莫吾猶人也,躬行君子,則吾未之有得.

本章記孔子自謙君子之道,不敢自居.

老師說:學文之事,我或者尚能及人,至於真能實踐君子之道,那我還沒有能夠做到.

:疑辭; 猶人:言不能過人而尚可及人;

Confucius said:My literacy may match up with others.To carry out humbly as a man of virtue, I am yet to attain it.

7.33:若聖與仁,則吾豈敢?抑為之不厭,誨人不倦,則可謂云爾已矣! …公西華曰:正唯弟子不能學也.

本章孔子自謙之辭,聖與仁不敢自居.

老師說:假使說聖和仁,那我怎麼敢當?或者我是努力不厭煩地去學,不懈怠地教導人,就這樣地說說罷了! …公西華說:這正是弟子們不能學得到的.

公西華:公西,子華,.孔子弟子.束帶立朝,知賓主之儀.

:或也,轉接辭; 云爾:如此說;

Confucius said:If talking about Sage and Man of virtue,I dare not comparing myself with them.Maybe I am just learning with unflagging effort,teaching without weariness,perhaps you may call me as such.

Gongxi Hua said:This is just exactly what your disciples unable to learn .

7.34疾病,子路請禱.:有諸?…子路對曰:有之:誄曰:禱爾于上下神祇;…:之禱久矣!

本章孔子自知日常言行,無不合於神明,如同禱於神明,無須代禱也.

老師病重.子路請求代為禱告.老師說:有這種事麼? …子路答:有的,在誄辭上說:為你向天地神衹禱告; …老師說:我自己已經禱告很久了.

請禱:請代禱於鬼神也; :累列死者德行之文詞;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Confucius was very ill.Zilu requested to ask for a prayer.

Confucius asked:Is there such a thing?

Zilu answered:There is.According to the book of Lei(the book of eulogy and dirge),quote:Pray to te gods above and below.unquote.

Confucius said:Qiu has had prayed for a long time! (connotation:a person’s behavior is a his/her prayer to Heaven)

7.35 :奢則不遜,儉則固;與其不遜也,寧固.

本章言奢與儉,皆非中庸之道.奢猶不如儉.

老師說:奢侈就不遜讓,儉吝又失於固陋,與其不遜讓,寧可固陋些.

:遜讓; :固陋;

Confucius said: Luxury can not be modest.Thrift can be restraining. Unable to be modest as such, let it better to stay restraining.

 7.36 :君子坦蕩蕩,小人長戚戚.

本章說君子與小人的心胸氣貌之不同.

老師說:君子心胸平坦寬大,小人心胸常常憂懼不安.

坦蕩蕩:心胸坦然寬大; 長戚戚:心中常憂懼不安.

Confucius said:A person of virtue is frank and magnanimous.A mean person is always worried and mournful.

7.37 温而厲,威而不猛,恭而安.

本章述孔子容態中和.

老師的容態溫和中帶有嚴肅之氣,有威儀而不兇猛,恭敬之中甚為安詳.

:嚴肅也; :兇猛也;

Confucius was gentle but stern.He was mighty but not fierce, he was reverent and peaceful.

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