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雍也 第六篇  

2011-08-11 17:01:46|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯雍也 第六篇 共二十七章

 

雍也 第六篇 共二十七章

 

6.1曰:也,可使南面; …仲弓問子桑

伯子,子曰:可也,簡;…仲弓曰:居敬而行簡,以臨其民,不亦可乎?居簡而行簡,無乃大簡乎?…子曰:雍之言然.

本章說明為政在簡之道.

…老師說:(冉)啊, 可以使之為諸侯;

 …仲弓(冉雍,字仲弓)問:子桑伯子這人怎樣? …老師說:他為政還可以,能寬略待民; …仲弓說:若存心敬肅,再行事寬略,以這樣治民,豈不是好嗎? 若居心寬略,而做事也寬略,未免就太粗疏無法度了吧?! …老師說:雍的話說得對了.

:姓冉(ran)名雍字仲弓,孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).

南面:君聽政之位,指冉雍之才德,可使任諸侯.

子桑伯子:魯國人; 簡:為政寬略不煩也; 居敬:心存敬肅也; 行簡:為政對人民行事寬略,不擾於民也; 太簡:敬事苟且粗疏,無法度可守也;

Confucius said:Yong,he can be assigned for the southern post(vassal;a chief administrative position).

Zhonggong(Yong’2nd name) asked about Zisang Bozi.Confucius said:His policy is generous,simple and easy to cope with.

Zhonggong said: If a person is solemn and respectful,apply such relax policy on people,how would it not BE workable? However if a person is himself is easy and relax,would it not be indulgent for himto carry out such kind of a policy?

Confucius said:See,Yong is so right!

6.2哀公問弟子孰為好學? 孔子對曰:有顏回者好學,不遷怒,不貳過.不幸短命死矣.今也則亡,未聞好學者也.

本章深許顏回好學.

哀公問弟子中那一位最好學? 孔子答:有顏回這人好學,不遷怒於別人,不重犯相同的過錯,很不幸短命早死了,目前這樣的人還沒有,沒聽到有好學的哩.

:同無.

哀公:魯哀公?-前468名蔣,為春秋諸侯國魯國君主之一,是魯國第二十六任君主.他為魯定公兒子,承襲魯定公擔任魯國君主,西元前494-468年在位,共在位27年.

顏回:前521-490顏名回.字子淵,亦稱顏淵.孔子弟子.孔子稱其賢(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..後世尊為後聖.不遷怒:不將怒氣遷移到別人身上; 不貳過:不再犯已犯過的過失錯誤.

Duke Ai asked which of the Confucius’disciples fond of learning the most.Confucius replied:There was Yang Hui the most fond of learning.He would not vent his anger upon anyone.He would not repeat his mistakes. Unfortunately, he died young.Now there is not such a person,I have not heard anyone who was fond of learning.

6.3子華使於,冉子為其母請粟.子曰:與之釜; …請益; …曰:與之庾; …冉子與之粟五秉; …子曰:赤之適齊也,乘肥馬衣輕裘.吾聞之也,君子周急不繼富;…原思為之宰,與之粟九百,辭; …子曰:毋! 以與爾鄰裏鄉黨乎!

本章言君子當周人之急而不繼富.

子華出使,冉子代子華母親請發米糧.老師說:給六四升; …冉求以為少,請增多些;…老師說:加二四升吧; …冉求給了八十斛; …老師說:赤,這次到齊國,駕著肥壯的馬,穿著輕美的皮裘,我聽說過,應該周濟人的急難,而不給富有的更加富有;…原思孔子的家臣,老師給他九百斛,他推辭不肯接受.老師說:不要推辭,可分些給那鄰裏堂中的人家啊!

:六斗四升; 庾:二斗四升; 秉:十六斛(hu),一斛乃十斗,後來改五斗; 九百:當是九百斛; 辭:推讓不敢接受(認為太多也); 毋:禁止; 周急不繼富:當周濟急困者,而不續富者之有餘.

子華(赤):姓公西名赤,字子華,孔子弟子.束帶立朝,知賓主之儀.

冉子:姓冉名求522-489魯人,字子有,(ran)亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子,有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰.

原思:姓原名憲,字思.孔子弟子.孔子為魯司寇時,以原思為家宰.

Zihua was sent on a mission to Qi. His classmate Ran You was applying ration for Zihua’s mother.Confucius said: Grant her a Fu (=6.4 bushels). Ran You requested to increase the quantity.Confucius said:Give her a Yu then,(=16bushels).

Ran You gave her 5 Bings instead(=800 bushels).

Confucius said:When Chi(Zihua’s 1st name)left for Qi,he had sleek horses attached to his carriage, he wore light furs(luxuries).I have heard that,its virtuous to help the needy and not to add wealth to the rich. 

When Yuan Si was a butler for Confucius,Confucius paid him 900 measures of grain.Yuan Si felt that he was over-paid and declined to accept. Confucius said:Do not refuse, why not share it with your neighbours and villagers

6.4仲弓曰:犂牛之子,騂(xing)且角,雖欲勿用,山川其舍諸?

本章論仲弓之品德不為其父所累

老師評論仲弓如:耕牛所生的小牛,色赤而頭角端正,人雖不想用牠,那山川之神怎肯捨棄牠呢?

(xing)赤色的牛或馬;

仲弓:姓,字仲弓,比孔子細二十九歲,國人.冉雍出身貧賤,他的父亲行為不良,有人以此作為攻擊冉雍的借口.孔子弟子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).

犂牛:耕牛(注:肉牛稱窂),不以為牲供於祭祀; 騂且角:騂/赤色(周代尚赤),祭牲用騂,角/謂其角周正.合於犧牲之選也; 用:用於祭祀; 山川:指山川之神; 舍:同捨;

Confucius allegorically said of Zhonggong(whose father was a criminal):The calf of a brindled cow has red cowhide and fine horns,although its eligible to be a sacrd-cow, yet rejected by secular humanism (because of its bloodline),would the gods of the mountain and rivers foresake it too? 

6.5曰:回也,其心三月不違仁,其餘則日月至焉而已矣.

本章評顏回以仁存心,較別人為高.

…老師說:回啊! 他心存仁德到三個月之久都不違失,其餘的人只有一個月或數天罷了.

三月:三月之久,仁心不失; 日月至焉:言仁心不失至一個月,或數日而已;

:521-490顏名回.字子淵,亦謂顏淵.魯國人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好學.問一知十,孔子自認不如.回不遷怒,不貳過,貧居陋巷,簞食(dan;古時竹飯碗)瓢飲(piao,剖開的葫蘆以盛水),而不改其樂.孔子稱其賢.早卒,後世尊為復聖.

Confucius said:Hui is capable to keep his moral rectitude 3 to 90 times longer than average people!

6.6季康子問:仲由可使從政也與? …子曰:由也果,於從政乎何有? …曰:賜也可使從政也與? …曰:賜也達,於從政乎何有? …曰:求,可使從政也與? …曰:求也藝,於從政乎何有?

本章分別評論子路,子貢,冉有之才能品德.

季康子:可以使仲由從事於政事嗎?…老師答:啊(子路),這人有決斷,對於從事政治還有什麼困難? …又問道:,可以使他從事於政治嗎?…老師答:端木賜(子貢)啊! 這人通達事理,對於從事政治還有什麼困難?…又問:冉求,可以使他從事政治嗎?…老師答:啊!這人多才多能,對於從事政治還有什麼困難?

季康子:複姓季孫.謚曰.?-前468國大夫正卿事魯哀公,此時國公室衰弱.季孫族系之名乃公子季友之後.亦稱為季氏.季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣. {歷史背景}季康子季孫肥,春秋時期國的正卿.姬姓,季氏,名.諡康.史稱季康子.季孫肥之[孫]字則為尊稱,所以說季孫並不是氏稱,季孫某僅限於對宗主的稱謂而已,宗族一般成員只能稱季某.故季孫肥季氏,而非季孫氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.以季氏為首的三桓強盛,季氏宗主季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣.再敍歷史上此時孔子門生的政迹:魯定公十五年,公薨,立哀公蔣.當時,以季桓子為首的{三桓}甚為強盛.哀公二年,季桓子卒,立子肥,是為季康子.當時的國,在國,國兩個大國的夾縫裏生存,處境不是很好.而{三桓}之間的關係也不是很融洽,季康子的專權,讓其它二桓:叔孫氏,孟氏很不滿.哀公七年(前486年),國(夫差)無禮,強逼國貢獻百牢(一百條牢[肉牛];禮制定各諸侯貢禮不能超過十二牢),國被迫貢獻,繼而國太宰(pi,本字解形大也)召季康子來朝見他,雖然國不如國強,康子還是拒絕了,似乎很有氣節,實則他覺得國雖大卻難成氣候,最終仍是無法稱霸的,故無懼於他.哀公十一年(前482),國入侵國,叔孫氏,孟氏季氏專權,不肯聽從季康子的號令將人攔在國土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,擊退了人,接著會同國在艾陵大敗人,史稱艾陵之戰.然而此戰之後,季康子卻加緊戰備,以防國再來.哀公十一年,季康子使公華,公賓,公林以幣(古代贈送賓客或用于祭祀的束帛.幣帛)來迎接孔子回國.至此,被{三桓}逐出國的孔子終於得以回,並完成他晚年修書的事業.可以說,季康子間接地成全了孔夫子作為聖人的大業.哀公十二年,季康子用[田賦],改革稅賦,進一步加速禮崩樂壞的過程,這當然是孔子不願意看到的.哀公十六年(前479),孔子卒.魯定公時期,孔子是與三桓鬥爭的重要權臣,但是結果還是被強大的三桓打敗,哀公二十七年,前469,季康子卒.當年(469)春,季康子,叔孫文子,孟武伯跟隨哀公後庸(越王勾踐)在平陽開會,季康子會中討論問題談到子貢.季康子說:假如現在子貢在這裏,我們根本不會與蠻夷(越國)訂這種盟約.孟武伯說:的確不錯,那為什麼不叫子貢呢? 季康子說:我馬上就叫子貢來;孫叔文子說:即使是到了以後,也不要忘記今天的說話(故此左氏春秋亦有記載此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子死.魯哀公雖然親自弔唁,然所行的卻是低一級不完備的禮節.

子路:姓子路一字季路,人,孔子弟子,細孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,時出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)廹孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公奔.子路入,見蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

子貢:衛國人.(貢本字贛),姓端木名賜.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,魯.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於齊.

冉有:姓522-489魯人,字子有,(ran),亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰. 參11.15

:有決斷;何有:何難之有; 達:通達事理; 藝:多才多能;

Ji Kangzi asked:Is Zhong You capable for politics?

Confucius said:Zhong You is good at decision making, what difficulty would he encounter in politics?

Ji Kangzi asked: Is Ci capable for politics?

Confucius said: Ci possesses good empathy.What difficulty would he encounter in politics?

Ji Kangzi asked: Is Qiu capable for politics?

Confucius said: Qiu is a versatile person. What difficult would he encounter in politics?

6.7季氏使閔子騫為費宰.閔子騫曰:善為我辭焉,如有復我者,則吾必在汶上矣.

本章記閔子騫之品德.

季孫氏使人召閔子騫為費邑當邑長. 閔子騫說:請代我好好地辭掉吧,如果再來召我,我就避到汶水之上了.

閔子騫:536-487魯國人,姓閔名損,字子騫.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性孝友,以德行著.少時被後母虐,其親生二子以絮造衣;子騫則以盧花;父知之欲出後母,子騫曰:母在一子寒,母去三子單.遂止,母亦感悟.

:季氏家邑,傳統bi,現在多讀fei; 復:再來召我; 汶上:水之上;

Minister of the Ji family was sent to recruit Minziqian to join the Ji clan and govern its Fei county. Minziqian said:Please kindly convey my humble resignation.Should anyone come again to invite me, I shall then migrate to the far side of the Wen River.

6.8伯牛有疾,子問之,自牖(you,窗也)執其手,曰:亡之,命矣乎?斯人也,而有斯疾也. 斯人也,而有斯疾也!

本章孔子歎伯牛有德而不得天年.

伯牛病重,老師去慰問,從窗子外握着他的手歎道:這人將要喪失了,這真是命啊! 這樣的人為何有這種病! 這樣的人為何有這種病!

有疾:染上惡疾; 牖:you,窗也.

伯牛:魯人,姓冉名耕.字伯牛,以德行著.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).孔子相魯,以為中都宰.

Boniu was carrying a deadly disease.Confucius went to console him.The master hold tight of his disciple’s hand through a window and cried:He is dying, Atlas! Is it fate?Such a (good)person should have such a (bad)disease!… Such a (good)person should have such a (bad)disease!

(leprosy)

6.9曰:賢哉回也!一簞食(dan;古時竹飯碗),一瓢飲(piao,剖開的葫蘆以盛水),在陋巷,人不堪其憂,回也不改其樂,賢哉回也!

本章評顏回能安貧樂道.

…老師說:真正有賢德的,回啊!一小竹器的飯,一瓢的水,住在窮陋狹隘的小巷裡,別人受不了這苦,而回啊不改變他那種樂道的精神.

; 陋巷:狹隘的小巷; 堪:勝也,任也;

:521-490顏名回.字子淵,亦謂顏淵.魯國人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..敏而好學.問一知十,孔子自認不如.回不遷怒,不貳過,貧居陋巷,一簞食(dan;古時竹飯碗)一瓢飲(piao,剖開的葫蘆以盛水),而不改其樂.孔子稱其賢.早卒,後世尊為復聖.

一簞食:一竹器的飯; 一瓢dried calabash/gourd ladle飲:一果壳造的杓載之

Confucius said: Virtuous indeed was Hui!(his daily meal)With a single bamboo container of rice,a single gourd shell of water, live in a lane of poverty,while others could not endure such distress ,Hui however remains optimistic in all.Virtuous indeed,was Hui! 

6.10冉求曰:非不說(悅)子之道,力不足也.子曰:力不足者,中道而廢,今女畫.

本章勉人力學,勿自規而廢.

冉求:並不是不喜歡老師說為人之道,實在我的力量不夠; …老師說:力量不夠,走到半途便停頓下來,現在你並非力量不夠,而是畫地自限,不想前進.

女畫:汝自畫地以自限.

冉求: 522-489魯人,字子有,(ran)亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子,有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰.

Ran Qiu said:Its not that I do not like your instructions, its only that I am in lack of strength to accomplish it.

Confucius said:Those who do not have enough strenfth give up half way(is excusable). Now you have restrain yourself without even attempting to start.(is inexcusable)

6.11謂子夏曰:女為君子儒,無為小人儒.

本章戒子夏當為君子的儒者.

…老師對子夏:你當做一個君子的儒者,不要做一個小人的儒者.

:學者之稱,具六藝之能,進德修身,從政於世.

小人儒:以儒為謀身之行業.

子夏:前507-?姓卜名商,衛國溫人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..子夏繼孔子之後,系統性傳授儒家經典的第一人.被後世譽為傳經鼻祖.他晚年是戰國時期的开始,到魏國西河一帶教學,開創的{西河學派}培育出大批經國治世良材,並成為孔儒支流法家成長的搖籃.子夏的兒子比他早去世.子夏傷心哭了双目失明.子夏倡 学而优则仕.

Confucius admonished Zixia: You should be a scholar with an ambition of a man of virtue. Do not be just an average scholar.

…(Zixia had turned out to be the most erudite disciple)

6.12子游武城宰,子曰:女得人焉爾乎?…曰:有(tan)臺滅明者,行不由徑,非公事,未嘗至於偃(yan偃粵讀演)之室也.

本章述澹臺滅明之賢.

子游做武城宰官,老師問:你得到人才嗎? …游答:有叫澹臺滅明的,他從不走小道取巧,不為公家事,從沒到過我偃的辦公室來.

行不由徑:言/行不走小道(走後門); :子游名.

子游:511-?姓,字子游,國人..仕武城宰.特習於禮,尤於文學,列位孔门十哲(子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).

武城:邑名; 焉爾乎:(助語辭)表示疑問;

澹臺滅明:愎姓澹臺滅明子羽愎姓澹臺tan粤讀談,不讀淡,武城人.澹臺後亦為孔子弟子.貌陋而有行.嘗曰:以貌取人,失之子羽.見史記仲尼弟子傳.按索隐云:[家語:子羽有君子之容,而行不勝其貌],今云子羽狀貌甚惡,則以子羽形陋也.與{家語}相反.

When Ziyou was the governor of Wucheng,Confucius asked him:Have you got good staff?

Ziyou replied:Yes,there is a person called Dantai Mieming,he would not take short cuts(cutting corners/pulling strings). Never would him try to visit me in private. He would come to my house only for an official business.

6.13曰:孟之反不伐,奔而殿,將入門,策其馬曰:非敢後也,馬不進也.

本章言人有功以不自誇為尚.

…老師說:孟之反不誇功.當魯軍敗走,他殿後掩護,快入城門,鞭着他的馬說:那裡敢有意留在後面阻敵,這匹馬跑不快啊.

 

孟之反:名側,魯國大夫; 伐:自誇其功; 奔:敗走; 殿:殿後掩護撤退; 策馬:鞭打馬;

Confucius said:Menzhifen did not boast himself.He was the last to leave the battle field to hamper the enemy from chasing.When his troops arrived the city gate,he whipped his horse and said:It was not that I dared to stay back,my horse just would not gallop.

6.14曰:不有祝鮀之佞,而有宋朝之美,難乎免於今之世矣.

本章孔子歎哀世人好諛媚,以口才為尚.

…老師說:一個人如果沒有像祝鮀的口才,有像宋朝的美色,在現代裡,就難免於禍害了.

祝鮀:字子魚,左傳稱祝佗,衛大夫,官大祝.有口才

宋朝:宋公子,貌美而淫.出奔於衛.

Confucius said:If a person do not have the eloquence of Zhu Tuo,instead only have the beauty of Song Zhao,it would be difficult for him to keep himself out of trouble.

6.15曰:誰能出不由户?何莫由斯道也?

本章孔子歎人多不知為人之道.

…老師說:誰人出不經過大門? 何人不去依着人之所以為人之道去行呢?

斯道:這人的所以為人之道.

Confucius said: Who would leave a house and not going through a door?(as knowing its the proper way).Therefore why is it then not going through the life  via a proper way

6.16曰:質勝文則野,文勝質則史,文質彬彬,然後君子.

本章言君子文質相稱.

…老師說:本質樸實勝過才華,則是鄉間的老實人.才華勝過本質,則是公衙中的文書官吏:本質和才華均勻相稱,然後才稱得是個君子.

:樸質也; 文:才華也; 野:鄙陋不中於禮也;

:官府中掌文書者.

Confucius said: Natural and unadorned with little literary talent begets a temperament of na?ve and rash.Or it will develop a flamboyant character if vice versa.Keeping the two in balance creates a person of virtue. 

6.17曰:人之生也直; 罔之生也幸而免.

本章孔子言直道,為人生之坦途.

…老師說:人之生於世,本應依直道而行,那些邪曲不正直的人也一樣地生活在世,只不過僥倖一時免於禍害罷了.

: 直道,正直之義; 罔:邪曲誣罔也.

Confucius said: Life is viable when its straight and honest. A crooked person may also live escapingly from disasters only by luck.

6.18曰:知之者,不如好知者, 好知者不如樂知者.

本章孔子言學道之淺深境界上之不同.

…老師說:知道此道的不如喜好此道的. 喜好此道的不如沈浸躭樂此道的.

知之:認識此道; 好之:喜好此道; 樂之:躭樂此道中之真味也.

Confucius said:Those who willing to learn are not as good as those who are fond of learning.Yet,those who find happiness in learning are the best learners of all.

6.19曰:中人以上,可以語上也.中人以下,不可以語上也.

本章明教人當以對象之學養深淺而善導之.

…老師說:中等資質以上的人,可以對他說高深的道理. 中等資質以下的人, 不可以對他講高深的道理.

:告之也.

Confucius said:One may pursue advance discussion with those who are are above average. Do not pursue advance discussion with those who are below average.

6.20樊遲問知,曰:務民之義,敬鬼神而遠之,可謂知矣; …問仁, 曰:仁者,先難而後獲,可謂仁矣.

本章明知和仁的實用.

樊遲問智;…老師說:努力於人之所應當做的事,敬拜鬼神,不可以迷惑,可算是智了.又問仁的道理. 老師說:一個仁者,能先克服一切困難,在人之前, 要論到報酬,卻遠居人後,可算是仁了.

樊遲:前515-?樊須,字子遲,故亦作樊遲.魯人,孔子弟子,仕於季氏.

務民之義: 努力於人之所當為的事; 先難而後獲:先盡力克服一切困難,然後才可得到報酬.

Fan Chi asked how to become wise.

Confucius said: Devote yourself to fulfil all your duties, respect all gods but keep aloof from them(not to be superstitious).This may call wise.

Fan Chi asked how to become virtuous.

Confucius said:A man of virtue would exert first and ask for reward afterward.This may call virtue

6.21曰:知者樂(yao)水,仁者樂(yao)山.知者動,仁者靜;知者樂,仁者壽.

本章說明仁知不同的心境,情趣,感受.

…老師說:智者喜好水,仁者喜好山.智者性好動,仁者性好靜,智者於事理通達,心中常樂.仁者安於仁義之道,自恬澹康健而永年.

樂水:yao,喜好,智者通達事理如水之流行.故樂於水; 樂山:( yao)仁者安於仁義,如山嶽之厚重不可移轉.

Confucius said:Intellectuals are fond of water(sea);benevolent people are fond of mountain.The Intellects are active. Benevolent people are tranquil. The Intellects are optimistic.Benevolent people have longevity.

6.22曰:齊一變,至於魯.魯一變,至於道.

本章孔子作齊魯比較.

…老師說:國若一變而修明禮教,可達到魯國一樣.魯國若一變它的取政治,可達行王道之境界了.

:強而行霸道; 魯:魯重禮教之邦.

Confucius said:Should Qi once reform,it could then match up with Lu. Should Lu once reform, it would match up with the path of virtue.

6.23曰:觚不觚(gu,行禮用的酒器),觚哉! 觚哉!

本章言名與實應相合.

…老師說:觚已不像觚的樣子,怎樣稱之為觚呢?

:gu,行禮用的酒器.上圓下方.取名觚以寡少之義也.戒人貪飲也.時人沈湎於酒.持觚而飲,忘其寡少之義,時人更破觚為圓,仍稱之觚,犹如君不君,臣不臣之風氣也.

Confucius said:A Gu is not like a Gu anymore.Oh Gu,how could it still be called a Gu? Oh Gu,all so pity!

…(Gu:wine Bessel exclusive for  official ceremonies.A sardonic similie Confucius made on the vassals allegorizing their improper representations to the Zhou dynasty) 

6.24宰我問曰:仁者雖告之曰[井有仁焉],其從之也? …子曰:何為其然也?君子可逝也,不可陷也,可欺也,不可罔也.

本章言仁者非愚必有智.不昧於事理.

宰我: 一個有仁德之人,假使有人告訴他井裡有個好人掉下去了,他是不是也跟着跳下去救人呢? …老師說:為什麼要這樣做呢?君子可以去救,但不會下井去救人,也將陷入井中,君子人可以欺騙他,但不會受不合事理矇蔽的.

宰我:宰名予,字子我,也稱宰我,魯國人.宰予口齒伶俐,能說善辯,被列為孔門四科十哲(言語科)之一.孔子常派遣他出使各國,如“使于齊”,“使于楚”等.宰予遇事有自己的主見.

:往也; 不可陷:不可使己亦陷溺於井中; 罔:眛於事理.

Zaiwo asked:If A man of virtue were told another man of virtue fell into a well,would he jump in to save him?

Confucius said:Why would he do so? (go into the well). He would good to seek help but would not put himself into predicament.One can tell lies to a man of virture, but can never make a fool out of him.

6.25曰:君子博學於文,約之於禮,亦可以弗畔矣夫!

本章明君子博文約禮以踐道.

…老師說:君子廣博去研究文章典籍,以禮來约束自己一切言行,就可以不背離於正道了.

A person with massive erudition, and could humbly restrain his/her behaviour accordingly  to rites,how could he/she be diverged from the path of virtue?

6.26南子.子路不說(悦),夫子矢之曰:予所否者,天厭之! 天厭之!

此章明孔子對任何人接談,必以禮.

…老師要前往見南子,子路為此心中很不愉快.老師發誓道:我如有不合禮的,天會厭棄我! 天會厭棄我!

南子:衛靈公之夫人.行為不檢以昭著.

:誓也; 否:謂不合於禮,不由於道也; 天厭之:言上天將厭棄於我.

Confucius went to visit Nanzi.Zilu was unhappy of it.(as Nanzi was a notorious adulteress)

Confucius swore vigorously: Should I have done amiss,Heaven would detest me, Heaven would detest me

6.27:中庸之為德也.其至矣乎?民鮮久矣!

本章言人很少有中庸之德了.

…老師說:中庸這種美德,可算是道理中最高的了.一般人很少有這種修養已經很久了.

中庸:謂不偏,不倚,無太過,無不及.

Confucius said: The merit of walking the Middle path should be considered as the highest standard of Moral.Its been rare for long to see any such kind of a person (walking the middle path).

6.28 子貢曰:如有博施於民,而能濟眾,何如?可謂仁乎? …子曰:何事於仁?必也聖乎! 堯舜其猶病諸?夫仁者,己欲立而立人,己欲達而達人,能近取譬,可謂仁之方也已!

本章明行仁之途徑.

子貢:如有人能博施恩惠於人,又能濟助大眾,這人怎樣?可算是仁者了吧? …老師說:這那裡是仁的事? 這必定是聖人了.就是堯舜還感到做的不足呢!所謂仁啊!己身想有所成立,亦想別人也有所成立.己身想通達於道,也想別人通達於道.能用就近切身的事情,去推想他人,這可算是行仁的方向了.[恕]

子貢:衛國人.(貢本作贛),姓端木名賜.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,魯.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於齊.

博施:廣施恩惠; 濟眾:普遍救濟大眾; 病:對所做的而感不足於心;

Zigong asked: Should there be a person who could extensively confer benefits on people,and assist all as well, what would you say of him? May call that person perfect virtue?

Confucius said: Thats a person beyond the perfect virtue! That person must be a Saint! Even Yao and Shun would find it hard to accomplish.

A person of perfect virtue would desire to sustain him/her self would sustain others too, develop him/her self would develop others too.able to empathize reciprocity.This is the direction for the path of perfect virtue!

…A man of humanity,wishing to establish himself,also establishes others. The ability to take as analogy what is near at hand can be called the method of humanity.
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