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學而 第一篇  

2011-08-12 12:42:38|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯學而 第一篇 共十六章

 

學而 第一篇 共十六章

 

1.1 :學而時習之,不亦(),有朋自遠方來,不亦樂乎.人不知而不慍不亦君子乎.

本章孔子教學習的態度,做人之道.要不停實踐.

老師說:學做人之道,時常能實習到做人之正道,心中不是很喜悅嗎?有朋友從遠方來探望(互相論道),不是覺得很快樂嗎?別人不知我有知識,我心中一點含怒之意也沒有,這不是已成為有道德的人了麽?(參閱1.16…不患人之不己知)

:學生稱老師,孔子之簡稱也; :yue曰粤讀若,說也; :這裡通悅,欣喜之義; :yun慍粵讀揾,含怒之義; 君子:有德行之人. :hu乎粵讀扶,這是反問 不是嗎?”的意思.

異譯(1): …學會的知識,能揮發於其事業中,不是一件開心的事嗎?

有老友海外到訪,亦不外乎以歌肴招待吧. 樂亦可讀[].

異譯(2):學而時習之,(求學時不停的練習),不亦說乎.(不是亦要與同自己相等水平的人[]?)…這裡的說不讀悅了.

Confucius said: Is it not pleasant that one can practise on one who has learnt? Is it not delightful to have friends visiting from afar? Is one not a person of lofty virtue,who feels no annoyance thoughno one understands him/her? 

1.2有子:其為人也孝弟,而好犯上者鮮矣(xian鮮粵讀癬).不好犯上而好作亂者,未之有也.君子務本,本立而道生;孝弟也者,其為仁之本與.

本章論行仁當以孝悌為本

有子:如有一人,他能孝順父母,尊敬兄長,而愛冒犯上師的,那一定是很少的.不愛冒犯上師的,而喜作亂的,就不會有了.有道的君子之人專心致力于根本,根本確立了,道自然會生出來了.孝悌是為人的根本啊!有子:,505518-國人,子有,被尊稱為有子.孔子晚年弟子.

有子勤奮好學,能較全面深刻地理解孔子學說.十哲之一.十哲指的是孔子下最秀的十位學(,,伯牛,仲弓,子有,,子路,子我,子游,子夏的合.{論語}中一般稱孔子的學生為X”,只有曾參有若兩人被尊稱曾子,有子.故有人據此推斷{論語}是由這兩位孔子學生的學生所編纂的.{論語}開篇四章,,已各佔一章矣!

孝弟:善事父母曰孝,善事兄長曰弟; 好犯上者鮮矣:,在上位者,背叛也,:xian鮮粵讀癬,少也; 作亂:違理反常之事; 務本:致力於根本之事; :人道也,人在世上一切當行之理也;

Youzi said: Seldom of those being filial and fraternal were fond of offending their superiors. Those who dislike offending their superiors have never been fond of stirring up confusion. A person of honour dedicates to what is fundamental. That being established, all doctrinces would be habituated a natural way of track. Filial piety and fraternal submission, are they not radical of all benevolent means?    

1.3 :巧言令色,鮮矣仁.

本章言仁者,當正言正色.

老師說:說討好話,裝出討喜歡的臉色,這種人的仁德是很少的.

巧言:說好聽的話; 令色:裝出討喜歡的臉色; :xian鮮粵讀癬,少也;

Confucius said: shrewd words of praising, obsequious appearance are seldom associated with true virtue.

1.4 曾子:吾日三省吾身:為人謀而不忠乎 與朋友交而不信乎 傳不習乎

本章記曾子反己省察.進德的工夫.

曾子:我每天以三件事反省自己,替人做事,有不盡心力的嗎? 與朋友交往,有不夠信實的嗎? 師所傳之道,再傳之於人,有未能温習成熟了嗎?

三省吾身:xing粵讀醒;檢查,每日以三件事反省自己; :盡己之力謂忠, :實之謂信; :受之於師; :熟習於己;

聯想:孟子:人之患,在好為人師樂意好分享知識乃人類文明進步之一大動力.不吝嗇才是美德.患之癥結不在好為人師,為師者斯傳不習乎也!

曾子: 子輿505-436武城,曾點之子.父子皆為孔子弟子.事親至孝.悟聖道一貫之旨.以其學傳子思(孔子孫兒),後世稱為宗聖.作曾子十八篇.孔子孫兒孔伋之師也,子思之儒.孔伋曾子孝道矣.

Zengzi said: my daily introspection on three aspects repeatedly are have I been faithful when transacting business for others? Have I been sincere when communicating with friends? Have I reviewed attentively what my teacher impart to me before I relate it to my student?

1.5 : 道千乘之國,敬事而信,節用而愛人,使民以時.

領導千乘(兵車),用民於其空閒之時.

本章論治理大國之要.

老師說:治理一個千乘兵車的大國,當謹慎從事,而取信於民.要節省費用,愛護人民,要使用人民的力量(徭役),當在農家空閒的時候.

:同導,,治理也; 千乘之國:春秋時期(公元前722-481),能出兵車千輛的稱為大國; 使民以時:,農人閒空之時.徭役:古時統治者強廹人民承担的無償勞動.

Confucius said: To lead a country of 1 thousand chariots (a big country),there must be reverent attention to business, with sincerity and thrifty expenditure, love for their people and recruit their labouring only at the proper seasons.

1.6 : 弟子入則孝,出則弟,謹而信,汎愛眾,而親仁,行有餘力,則以學文.

本章言學問以道德為重,有餘力才學文.

老師說:弟子們,在家要孝順父母,在外當尊敬長者和上師.言行要謹慎信實.普遍地去愛大眾.親近有德之人,像這樣的修養自己,如有多餘的精神,就去研究詩書六藝之文.

汎愛眾:汎即泛也,普遍(沒有私心)地以愛心對人; :指詩書六藝之文;

Confucius said: A youth, when at home,should be filial,when abroad,respectful to elders,be earnest and truthful. One should overflow in love to all and cultivate friendship of the good.when one has time and opportunity,after the performance of these things, then one would engage to study other doctrines.

1.7 子夏:賢賢易色,事父母能竭其力,事君能致其身,與朋友交言而有信:雖曰未學,吾必謂之學矣.

本章記子夏教人為學的道理.

子夏:一個人如能重視妻的德而不重視她的美色,奉敬父母,能竭盡自己的力量.事奉君上,能獻身於職守,和朋友交往,說話要有信用.這樣的人,雖然說並沒有去學習修養什麽道德,我一定說他已有了道德修養了.

賢賢易色:上賢字動詞,下賢字名詞.以尊重人之賢德以替代其外表之儀色; 致其身:獻其身於職守.

子夏:507-?姓,,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子夏是繼孔子之後,系統性傳授儒家經典的第一人.被後世譽為傳經鼻祖.他晚年是戰國時期开始,魏國西河一帶教學,開創的{西河學派}培育了大批經國治世良材,並成為孔儒支流的{法家}成長的搖籃.

Zixia said: If one withdraws mind from the love of apparent beauty and applies it as sincerely to the love of the (inner) virtuous; if serving parents with utmost strength,serving country with devotion of even with life itself,interact with friends with sincere intercourse,such person although has not learnt,I will certainly say that he/she has.

1.8 :君子不重則不威,學則不固,主忠信,無友不如己者,過則勿憚改.(dan)

本章孔子教人做君子.學君子之道.有過則不要畏難而不.

老師說:一個人不莊重,就失去尊嚴了.他所修養的道德,也就不能堅固不移了.君子要以忠信為主,不要去結交不如自己的人,有過,不要怕難改.

:莊重; :尊嚴; :dan但畏難畏惧,:肆無忌憚;

Confucius said:If the scholar be not grave,such person will not call forth any veneration. His/her learning would not be valid.Hold faithfulness and sincerity as primary principles. Have no friends not equal to yourself. When you have faults do not fear it being too difficult to be corrected. 1.9 曾子: 慎終追遠,民德歸厚矣

慎終先人之喪能守禮盡哀. 追遠祭祀祖先能盡其追思.皆可轉移民風趨向

曾子:子輿505-436武城,曾點之子.父子皆為孔子弟子.事親至孝.悟聖道一貫之旨.以其學傳子思(孔子孫兒),後世稱為宗聖.作曾子十八篇.孔子孫兒孔伋之師也,子思之儒.孔伋曾子孝道矣.

Zengzi said: Let there be a meticulous rites for parental funerals, and let ceneromies be followed even long gone, then the virtue of people will recover their original excellence.

1.10 子禽問於子貢:夫子至於是邦也,必聞其政, 求之與?抑與之與?子貢曰:夫子溫,,,,.以得之;夫子之求之也,其諸.異乎人之求之與?

本章言孔子周遊列國,皆因其有德,而得與聞國政.

子禽子貢:我們老師每到一個國家,就要參與那個國家的政事,是他求來的還是别人主動告訴他的呢?…子貢:老師温和,善良,恭敬,節儉,謙讓,才獲得這種待遇.他這種求得的方法,同於別人求得之方法吧.

必聞其政:預聞其國之政事; :和厚; :善良; :恭敬; :節約; :謙遜; 其諸:語助詞; 夫子:古代一種敬稱.凡做過大夫級官的人就可被稱為夫子; 孔子做過魯國司冦,故稱孔子夫子也;

子禽:511-430子元,一字子禽,又名原亢,小孔子40.(安徽蒙城縣).大夫陳子車之弟.孔子弟子,77位弟子中名列第68.曾做過單父(山東縣南).陳亢為宰時,施德政於民,頗受後人好評.其兄死(大夫),反對家人殉葬.

子貢:端木賜衛國人.(貢本作贛),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子貢有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

Ziqin asked Zigong:When our master arrives any country,he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information or is it given to him?

Zigong said: Our master is benign,upright, courteous, temperate, complaisant and thus he gets his information His mode of asking information – is it not different from that of other people?

1.11 :父在觀其志,父沒觀其行.三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣

本章言為人子者一種孝行.

老師說:父親在世,一切由父作主.只觀察他的志向.父親死後,子承父志,當觀察他的所行.在喪三年之內,都沒改變父親生前的行政方法,這可以算是孝子了.

觀其志:父在世,子不得自專,要觀父親的志向,父業子承; 觀其行:父沒,子乃主事,故觀察其所行事方法;

Confucius said: When father is alive,follow the direction of his will,when father is dead,maintain the conduct of his ambition.If for three years making no changes, that can be called filial piety.

1.12 有子:禮之用,和為貴,先王之道,斯為美,小大由之;有所不行,知和而和,不以禮節之,亦不可行也.

本章言人對禮之運用,要調和融洽為尚.

有子:禮的使用,要以調和融洽為貴.古代聖王之道,他的美處就在此;小事大事都得由此而行.但也有行不通的.如只知道應該用和,就一意地用和,而不用禮來限制,也不可以這樣地去.

:調和融洽.和沒禮的制度是不可行的,

有子: ,505518-國人,子有,被尊稱為有子.孔子晚年弟子. 有子勤奮好學,能較全面深刻地理解孔子學說.十哲之一.十哲指的是孔子下最秀的十位學(,,伯牛,仲弓,子有,,子路,子我,子游,子夏的合.{論語}中一般稱孔子的學生為X”,只有曾參有若兩人被尊稱曾子,有子.故有人據此推斷{論語}是由這兩位孔子學生的學生所編纂的.{論語}開篇四章,,已各佔一章矣!

Youzi said: The usage of rites,Equanimity is the essence. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, it (equinamity) is excellent quality,and in things small and big we follow them.Yet it is not to be observed in all cases.If one,knowing how such equanimity is essence,manifests it,without regulating it by the rites,this likewise is not to be done. 

1.13 有子:信近於義,言可復也.恭近於禮,遠恥辱也.因不失其親,亦可宗也.

本章言信與恭之實踐.信要合乎道理適宜.恭敬必先合乎禮.才可遠離恥辱.

有子:和人有約信,必先要合乎道理適宜.才可踐守.對人恭敬,先要合乎禮,才可遠離於耻辱.遇到有可親近的人,必先選擇確實值得可以親近的方面,那就以他這方面為宗主敬仰罷.

:約信; :事之得宜;

有子:,505518-國人,子有,被尊稱為有子.孔子晚年弟子. 有子勤奮好學,能較全面深刻地理解孔子學說.十哲之一.十哲指的是孔子下最秀的十位學(,,伯牛,仲弓,子有,,子路,子我,子游,子夏的合.{論語}中一般稱孔子的學生為X”,只有曾參有若兩人被尊稱曾子,有子.故有人據此推斷{論語}是由這兩位孔子學生的學生所編纂的.{論語}開篇四章,,已各佔一章矣!

Youzi said:Agreements are based on righteous duty. What is spoken can then be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a person learns are proper persons to be intimate with, one can make them his/her guides and masters.

1.14:君子食無求飽,居無求安,敏於事而慎於言,就有道而正焉;可謂好學也已.

本章評好學之事情.

老師說:有道的君子不求豐足的飲食.居住不求安適.勤敏的做事,謹慎地說話.親近有道德的人,請糾正他不正之處,這樣可算是一位好學的人了.

無求飽:無暇顧及安飽; :勤敏;

:謹慎; 就有道:親近有道德的人;

:糾正錯處.

Confucius said: A person who aims to become complete virtue,does not in his food seek to gratify his appetite.Does not seek in his dwelling place with appliances of comfort. That person is earnest in what he/she is doing, careful in making speeches,that person frequents the company of friends of which principle that he/she may be rectified.- such a person may be said indeed to have loved to learn.

1.15 子貢:貧而無諂(chan前險,義巴結奉承),富而無驕,何如?… :可也! 未若貧而樂,富而好禮者也;…子貢:詩云:如切如磋,如琢如磨,其斯之謂與?…:,始可與言詩已矣! 告諸往而知來者.

本章孔子子貢.

子貢:窮人能對人不巴結奉承,富能對人不傲慢,這樣如何呢? …老師說:這算是可以了,但不如貧而樂,富而守禮; …子貢:詩經上說 像治玉一樣,不斷地切磋琢磨,精益求精不就是這個意思麼?…老師說:!而悟,像這樣可以跟你談詩了.告知你這一些,你就能知道那一些的道理來.

:献媚討好於人; :傲慢於人; :{詩經}; 切磋琢磨:修身克己之功;

子貢:國人.(本字),端木.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.,.嘗說出師敵以存.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

Zigong said: What would you pronounce concerning the poor person who yet does not flatter,and the rich person who is not proud?

Confucius replied: They are not bad.But not as good as those though poor yet cheerful,though rich yet love the rites.

Zigong replied: it is said in the Book of Odes – As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish; the meaning is the same, I apprehend ,as that which you have just expressed.

Confucius said: Now, I can begin to discuss the Odes with you. I have told you that point,which you came to apprehend.

1.16 :不患人之不己知,患不知人也.

本章言人應當憂慮不知辨別人的好壞.

老師說:不要去憂慮別人不知道自己,自己應當憂慮的是,不知道別人.

:憂慮也;

Confucius said: I will not be offended at others not knowing me. I am only worried that I am not able to know others.

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