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為政 第二篇  

2011-08-12 12:05:44|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯為政 第二篇 共二十四章

 

為政 第二篇 共二十四章

 

2.1 :為政以德,譬如北辰,居其所而眾星共之.

本章論以德行領導政治.

老師說:管理國家的政事若能依靠德行,那就會像北極星一樣,待在固定的地位,眾多的群星都環繞着它的周圍.

北辰:北極星,位於眾星之中,為天之中樞; :拱也,圍繞之義;

Confucius said: Those who exercise government by means of virtue,are parallel to the Polaris, whick keep their position and all stars turn towards them.  

2.2 :詩三百,一言而蔽之 曰 [思無邪]

本章言詩經的主旨.

老師說:詩經雖然有三百篇,只要一句話就可包括了.‘使人性情歸於純正不生邪念

詩三百:{詩經}共三百零五篇. :包括; :語助詞;

Confucius said: The 3 hundred pieces of the Poetry (Odes), as to summarise them in 1 phrase,Think no Evil.

2.3 :道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥,道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格.

本章言孔子的政治理想.

老師說:用法律命令來引導老百姓,用刑罸來整齊他們,這樣他們雖然能夠苟免犯罪,卻不知犯罪是可耻的. 用道德來引導他們,用禮來整齊他們,這樣他們不但知廉耻,會甘心情願的歸服.

:引導; :整齊一致; :標準也;

民免而無恥:不覺得不服從領導是可恥

Confucius said: If people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be ruling them by means of punishments,they will abide laws to avoid punishments, but have no sense of shame.If they are led by virtue,and uniformity sought to be given them by the rites,they will have the sense of shame ,hence will become good. 

2.4 :吾十有五而志於學,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳順,七十而從心所欲不踰矩.

本章孔子自述.

老師說:我十五歲有志於學業,三十歲說話做事都能夠合乎禮,四十歲(明白了世上的各種事理)能夠不受迷惑,五十歲懂得了天命自然法則,六十歲聽到別人說的話,便能了解其主旨,七十歲便隨心所欲,所想的一切都不會超越規炬.

:; 不惑:對於事理之所當然,皆無有疑惑; 天命:天地間一切自然之法則,亦一切事物的必然之理; 耳順:能聽到外界一切言論,無論其是與非,昏不為所動搖所迷惑了; 不踰矩:不超越法度.

…The most significant personal descriptions of Confucius’spiritual development…at 15 I set my heart on learning; at 30 I firmly took my stand;at 40 I had no delusions; at 50 I knew the Mandate of Heaven; at 60 my ear was attuned; at 70 I followed my heart’s desire without overstepping the boundaries of right. 

2.5 孟懿子問孝.:無違.樊遲,告之曰:孟孫問孝於我,我對曰:無違.樊遲:何謂也? :,事之以禮,,葬之以禮,祭之以禮.

本章言孝不可有違於禮.

孟懿子問怎樣才算是孝道.老師說:不可有違於禮; …後來,樊遲孔子駕車,老師告訴他說:孟孫問我怎樣盡孝,我對他說不可有違於禮;…樊遲:這怎樣講? …老師說:父母在時,事奉要合乎禮.死了,喪葬要合乎禮.以後在祭祀時,要合乎禮.

孟懿子:大夫姓仲孫何忌.(shi,死後追加的封号)(yi,本義美好也(猶指品德而).

樊遲:515-?樊須,字子,故亦作樊遲.,孔子弟子,仕於季氏.

:駕車

Mang Yizi asked about filial duty. Confucius said: Not violating the rites. Soon after, while Fan Chi was chauffeuring Confucius, Fucius told him:Mang Sun asked me about filial dity,I told him not to violate. Fan Chi asked: What did you mean? Confucius said: That parents, when alive, should be served according to rites, when dead, should be buried according to rites,and that they should be remembering according to rites.

2.6 孟武伯問孝,:父母唯其疾之憂.

本章言子女謹慎持身,不讓父母担心,是為孝矣!

孟武伯問怎樣才算是孝;老師說:父母唯有以子女的疾病為憂.

孟武伯:孟懿子之子.(zhi,本義豬也).謚曰.

Mang Wubo asked about filial duty. Confucius said: Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick.[connotation in this verse, taking good care of oneself is carrying out a good filial duty]

2.7 子游問孝.:今之孝者是謂能養.至於犬馬,皆能有養.不敬何以別乎?

本章言孝重敬愛之心.

子游問怎樣才算是孝;老師說:現今世俗人所謂孝,就是指衣食住方面的能夠供奉父母.其實像人對狗馬,皆有養活牠.如果對父母供養沒有孝心,那和供養狗馬有何分别呢?

:以衣食住供給;

子游:511-?,子游,國人.武城.特習於禮,尤於文學,列位孔门十哲(子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).

Ziyou asked about filial duty. Confucius said: Nowadays, filial duty means the support of parents. However dogs and horses likewise are being supported too.Without reverence,what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?

2.8 子夏問孝.:色難.有事,弟子服其勞;有酒食,先生饌;曾是以為孝乎?

本章言子女孝敬父母,酒食供養,未足為孝.難在臉上的表情和態度也.

子夏問怎樣才算是孝;…老師說:做子女的難在事奉父母時,臉上的容顏態度.假使家裡有事,子弟們去操勞,有了酒飯,先讓年老長輩食用,這就是孝嗎?

色難:事奉父母時,臉上表現出的顏容和態度是最難的;

先生:父兄; :食用; :乃也.

子夏:507-?姓卜名商,衛國溫人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..子夏繼孔子之後,系統性傳授儒家經典的第一人.被後世譽為傳經鼻祖.他晚年是戰國時期开始,魏國西河一帶教學,開創的{西河學派}培育出大批經國治世良材,並成為孔儒支流法家成長的搖籃.

:侍奉父母時臉丄所戴的表情.

Zixia asked about filial piety (which is on top of filial duty), Confucius said: Such difficulty is with the countenance. When parents have any troublesome affairs,the children should take toil off them.When the children have wine and food,they should set them before their parents , is these considered to be filial piety?

2.9 :吾與言終日,不違如愚,退而省其私(私下討論),亦足以(),也不愚

本章孔子顏淵好學的情形.

老師說:我和顏回論道一整天,他都沒有發問.信受奉行.像愚人一般.等他退下,我省察他和別人私下討論,都能發揮我的言教.! 實在不愚鈍.

:521-490.子淵,亦謂顏淵.國人.孔子弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).敏而好學.問一知十,孔子自認不如.不遷怒,不貳過,貧居陋巷,簞食(dan;古時竹飯碗)瓢飲(piao,剖開的葫蘆以盛水),而不改其樂.孔子稱其賢.早卒,後世尊為復聖.

Confucius said: I have talked with Yan Hui for a whole day, and he had reverted no disagreement-as if he were stupid.As he retreated and I examined his conduct,I had found him able to illustrate my teachings. See, Hui is not stupid at all.

2.10 :視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安,人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?

本章言觀察人的方法.

老師說:觀察他的行,再進一步觀察他行的趨向,再觀察他心之所安,這個人還有什麼地方可以掩藏得住呢? 這個人(邪與正)還有什麼地方可以掩藏得住呢?

:所為; :行為的趨向; :心之所樂; :sou;藏匿義.;謎語

Confucius said: See what a person does,mark his/her motives, examine in what things he/she rests, how can that person conceal his/her mood? how can that person conceal his/her mood?

2.11 :溫故而知新,可以為師矣.

本章言作為人師之道.

老師說:能温習以前所學的,開悟出新的知識,就可以作為人師了.

温故: 温習已知道的; 知新:開悟新知識.

Confucius said: one who can cherish his/her old knowledge and constantly revising it to acquire kew meaning from it, he/she can be a teacher of others.

2.12 :君子不器.

本章言君子不專限於一材一藝之長.要能通瞻全局.此乃{通悉}之謂也.亦為通識教育之緣.

老師說:一個君子不像某一個器具.(只能供某一種用途)

君子:成德之人; :限於一種用途之器皿.

Confucius said: A virtuous person does not act like an untensil.(which is a design for one purpose only.)

2.13 子貢問君子,:先行其言而後從之.

本章言君子當行在言先,言在行後.言行要一致.

子貢:怎樣才算是君子?老師說:先做事,後說話.(做到了然後再說)

子貢:國人.(貢本字贛),端木.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.,.嘗說出師敵以存.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

先做事後說話.

Zigong asked what constituteda man of virtue.

Confucius said:He acts before he speaks, and then speaks according to his actions.

2.14 :君子周而不比.小人比而不周.

本章評君子與小人,在品德上之不同.

老師說:君子待人忠信,不結黨阿私.小人阿私結黨,卻不忠信待人.(參閱13.23君子和而不同,小人同而不和.)

:忠信待人.:阿私結黨.

Zigong asked what constituted a man of virtue.

Confucius said: A virtuous person socializes but not cliques; Evil person cliques but not socializes.

2.15 :學而不思則罔,思而不學則殆.

本章言學與思同修並進.

老師說:只知向外學習不加內心思考,終將迷惘無所得.如只去思索不知學習,那對一切的事理,便覺危殆不安了.

:無所得義迷惘; :危而不安

Confucius said:Learning without thinking leads to misunderstanding.Thingking without learning is perilous.

2.16 :攻乎異端,斯害也已.

本章說求學不可以雜亂.

老師說:專向違反古道的學問上去努力,那就是害了自己.

異端:不循前人之言論.

聯想:以此章貶若孔門迂腐者.無妨重2.11溫故而知新.

Confucius said:To study weird doctrines,it is harmful indeed.

2.17:,誨女知之乎. 知之為知之,不知為不知.是知也

本章說明知的精義.

老師說:仲由!我教你什麽叫[知道]![知道]就是知道,不知道就是知道不知道.這就是智慧了.

:子路魯國卞人,子路一字季路,孔子弟子,(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立.太子(kuai)(gui,字本義瞎也),(蒯瞶出公之父親)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂{孔悝之難},子路遂被害.

誨女:教汝,();

Confucius said: You,shall I teak you what knowledge is about? When you know a thing,to hold that you know it.and when you do not know a thing,just know that you do not know it.This is knowledge.

2.18 子張學干祿,:多聞闕疑,慎言其餘,則寡尤.多見闕殆.慎行其餘,則寡悔.言寡尤,行寡悔.祿在其中矣.

本章說求仕之道.

子張想學做官之道.老師說:多聽別人的說話,把覺得有疑的事情擱置在一邊.其餘的也要謹慎地說.便可減少了過失.多去看别人做的,把覺得不安於心的放在一邊,其餘的也要謹慎地做,便可減少了後悔.說話少過失,做事少後悔,想做官的祿位,就在這裡面哩.

干祿:求職; :空置; :過失,被人責難; :心有所不安;

子張:顓孫,孔子弟子.孔子48.陳國人,孔子曾說過師也過(11.14),師也辟(11.16);後世有子張之儒派.

Zizhang was learning with a view to official emolument.

Confucius said:Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt,while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others; then you will afford fewer occasions for blame.See much and put aside the things which seem perilous,while you are cautious at the same timein carrying the others into practice;then you will have fewer occasions for repentance. When one gives fewer occasions for blame in his words,and fewer occasions for repentance in his conductm, he is in the way to secure emolument.

2.19 哀公問曰:何為則民服? 孔子對曰:擧直錯諸枉,則民服.擧枉錯諸直,則民不服.

本章言為君者,使人民服從之道.

哀公:怎樣做才能使人民信服? …孔子:擧用正直之人,廢置邪曲之人,人民便服從了.如擧用那些邪曲之人,廢置正直之人,人民便不服從了.

哀公:;.謚曰.

:正直; :歪曲,(矯枉過正)

Duke Ai of the State Lu asked what should be done in order to secure the submission of the people.

Confucius replied: Promote the upright (officials) and set aside the crooked (ones), then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright then, the people will not submit.

2.20 季康子:使民敬忠以勸,如之何? :臨之以莊則敬,孝慈則忠,擧善而教不能則勸.

本章論怎樣使人民敬上,忠君,互相勸勉為善.

季康子,使人民敬上,盡忠,並且能相互勸勉為善,要怎樣才能做到呢?…孔子:在上位的要莊重的態度對待下民,人民自會敬重在上的.在上位的要孝敬父母,慈愛子弟,人民自能盡忠,擧薦有賢德的善人,教導才能不足的人,人民自會相互勸勉為善了.

:上對下; :互相勸勉.

季康子:複姓季孫.謚曰.?-468國大夫正卿事魯哀公,此時國公室衰弱.季孫族系之名乃公子季友之後.亦稱為季氏.季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣. {歷史背景}季康子季孫肥,春秋時期國的正卿.姬姓,季氏,.諡康.史稱季康子.季孫肥[]字則為尊稱,所以說季孫並不是氏稱,季孫某僅限於對宗主的稱謂而已,宗族一般成員只能稱季某.季孫肥季氏,而非季孫氏.季平子季桓子,季桓子季康子.季氏為首的三桓強盛,季氏宗主季康子位高權重,是當時國的權臣.再敍歷史上此時孔子門生的政迹:魯定公十五年,公薨,哀公蔣.當時,季桓子為首的{三桓}甚為強盛.哀公二年,季桓子,子肥,是為季康子.當時的,,國兩個大國的夾縫裏生存,處境不是很好.{三桓}之間的關係也不是很融洽,季康子的專權,讓其它二桓:叔孫氏,孟氏很不滿.哀公七年(486),(夫差)無禮,強逼國貢獻百牢(一百條牢[肉牛];禮制定各諸侯貢禮不能超過十二牢),國被迫貢獻,繼而國太宰(pi,本字解形大也)季康子來朝見他,雖然國不如國強,康子還是拒絕了,似乎很有氣節,實則他覺得國雖大卻難成氣候,最終仍是無法稱霸的,故無懼於他.哀公十一年(482),國入侵,叔孫,孟氏季氏專權,不肯聽從季康子的號令將人攔在國土之外.季康子任用孔子的弟子冉有,擊退了,接著會同國在艾陵大敗,史稱艾陵之戰.然而此戰之後,季康子卻加緊戰備,以防國再來.哀公十一年,季康子使公華,公賓,公林以幣(古代贈送賓客或用于祭祀的束帛.幣帛)來迎接孔子回國.至此,{三桓}逐出國的孔子終於得以回,並完成他晚年修書的事業.可以說,季康子間接地成全了孔夫子作為聖人的大業.哀公十二年,季康子[田賦],改革稅賦,進一步加速禮崩樂壞的過程,這當然是孔子不願意看到的.哀公十六年(479),孔子.魯定公時期,孔子是與三桓鬥爭的重要權臣,但是結果還是被強大的三桓打敗,哀公二十七年,469,季康子.當年(469),季康子,叔孫文子,孟武伯跟隨哀公後庸(越王勾踐)平陽開會,季康子會中討論問題談到子貢.季康子:假如現在子貢在這裏,我們根本不會與蠻夷(越國)訂這種盟約.孟武伯:的確不錯,那為什麼不叫子貢? 季康子:我馬上就叫子貢;孫叔文子:即使是到了以後,也不要忘記今天的說話(故此左氏春秋亦有記載此事也); …同年夏天四月己亥日,季康子.魯哀公雖然親自弔唁,然所行的卻是低一級不完備的禮節.

Jikang asked how to make people to pay respect and reverence to their ruler, to be faithful to him and to go on nerve themselves to virtue.

Confucius said: Ruler with a solemn appearance is respectful. Let him be filial and benevolent ,people will be faithful to him.Let him praise the good and teach the incompetent, the people will eagerly seek to be virtuous.

2.21 或謂孔子:奚不為政? :書云{孝乎,惟孝于兄弟}施於有政,是亦為政,奚其為為政?

本章言在家孝友于兄弟,就是政.

有人對孔子:先生為何不從政? …孔子:尚書上說孝啊!能孝敬父母,又友愛于兄弟’;人在家中,治理家中事,這就是從政.還有什麽專門為從政而去從政呢?

:何也; :尚書; :善也

Confucius when asked why he did not take part in government,he responded by citing a passage from 尚書:Simply by being a good son and friendly to his brothers a man can exert an influence upon government! To show that what a person does in the confines of his fome is politically significant.

2.22:人而無信,不知其可也.大車無輗,小車無軏,其何以行之哉.

本章言人不可無信.

老師說:一個人如沒信用,不知道還有什麽可以說是對的.這好比在大車上沒有輗,小車上沒有軏,它們怎可以走呢?

:ni粵讀,crossbar牛車兩轅之端.有橫木以縛軏的; :yue軏粵讀乙little crossbar輕車或在戰車上兩轅之端,頭曲向上,鈎着衡用以駕馬的.此輗和軏皆為車轅之頭.鈎在橫的關鍵.無此,車便不能行.

Confucius said:I do not know how a person without integrity can proceed anywhere.How can a large carriage can be driven without the crossbarfor yoking the oxen,or a small carriage without the fixture for yoking its horses?

2.23子張:十世可知也? 子曰: 殷因於夏禮,所損益可知也.周因於殷禮,所損益可知也.其或繼周者,雖百世可知也.

本章言禮之因革損益,自有軌跡可尋.

子張:十個朝代以後的政治,可以預知麼? …老師說:代因襲於代的禮制,所有增減的,現在可以知道,因襲於代的禮制,所有增減的.現在可以知,將來有繼而起,甚而至於一百代以後,也可以預知的.

十世:上者易姓為一代.十個朝代.

子張:顓孫,孔子弟子.孔子48.國人,孔子曾說過師也過(11.14),也辟(11.16);後世有子張之儒派.令尹:官位,楚上卿執政者;

Zizhang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

Confucius said:The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Xia; wherein it took from or added to them may be known.The Zhou dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin; wherein it took from or added to them may be known . Some other may follow the Zhou,but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be traced.

2.24 :非其鬼而祭之,諂也.見義不為,無勇也.

本章言人祭祀,祭當祭之鬼.做事,做當做之事.

師說:不應當去祭的鬼去祭他,這就是諂媚行,遇到應該做的事不去做, 這就是沒有勇的精神.

非其鬼:謂非所應當祭祀之鬼; :求媚; 見義不為:見到應當做的不做.

Confucius said:For a person to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him/her is flattery. To see what is right and not to do it is in lack of courage.
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