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八佾 第三篇  

2011-08-12 11:17:43|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯八佾 第三篇 共二十六章

 

 

八佾 第三篇 共二十六章

 

yi粵讀日,古代舞蹈,一行八人為一佾.

3.1 孔子季氏:八佾舞於庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?

本章評季氏僭用天子之禮樂.

孔子評論季氏用八佾的禮樂,在他的家廟庭中.像這樣的事,如可以容忍,還有什麼事不可容忍的呢?

八佾:天子之舞蹈,八人八行共六十四人之舞蹈.

諸侯六佾;大夫四佾;士二佾.

季氏:大夫季孫氏;

Confucius made comments on the Ji family,said: Such eight rows of eight people performance in his own court,if such ritual violation is tolerable, what else (ritual violation)is intolerable?

3.2三家者以雍徹,曰:[相維辟公,天子穆穆]奚取於三家之堂?

本章指三家大夫:孟孫,叔孫,季孫.皆僭用天子之禮樂.

孔子國三家大夫,家祭撤祭品時,也歌唱{雍}詩.老師說:{雍}詩有兩句, ‘四方諸候都來助祭,天子的儀容肅穆誠敬’,{雍}詩的涵義,那合乎這三宗廟堂上的情形呢?

:頌篇名;徹同撤(古禮祭畢,撤去祭饌);

相維辟公:四方諸侯都來助祭; 奚取於三家之堂?.:合乎三家之堂嗎?

The three families of Mengsun, Shusun and Jisun usurped the {Yong ode} during the vessels were being removed from the alter at the conclusion of the sacrifice, Confucius thus commented,(the three families) usurped the phrase which is exclusive for the son of the heaven : ‘ Assising are the princes; the son of heaven looks profound and grave.’; what kind of application can these words has in the hall of the three families?

3.3 曰:人而不仁,如禮何? 人而不仁, 如樂何?

本章言仁為禮樂之本.

…老師說:如果一個人不以仁存心,就是用禮來,對他又能發生什麼作用呢? 一個人不以仁存心, 就是用樂來,對他又能發生什麼作用呢?

不仁:沒有以仁存於心…禮樂皆無效用.

Confucius said: For people that are not benevolent,rites and music would have what significance in them?

3.4 林放問禮之本.曰:大哉問! 禮與其奢也,寧儉,喪,與其易也,甯戚.

本章論禮之本原.

林放問禮的根本.老師說:你問的題目很大啊!一般的禮儀,與其奢侈,不如節儉些;喪葬儀式,與其辦得盡善盡美,不如在心裏真正悲哀.

林放:普通一人; 禮之本:世人多注意禮之繁文縟節.應不違背禮之本原才對.

:奢侈;易:治辦之義; 戚:哀傷

Lin Fang asked what nomality is radical for rites.

Confucius said: A profound question indeed! In festive ceremony, it is better be thrifty than extravagant,In mourning ceremony,rather to meticulously concern on subtleties, it is better to have an obvious expression of condolences.

3.5曰:夷狄之有君,不如諸夏之亡也.

本章論時之亂,君臣之禮已廢.

…老師說:蠻夷之人,尚知有君長,不像中國諸侯之國內,僭亂犯上,已君臣之禮了.

夷狄:蠻夷之邦. 諸夏:中國各諸侯之國(vassal kingdoms).有君:尚知有君長.

Confucius said: The uncivilized tribes of the east and north nomads respect their princes; unlike our civilized vassal-kingdoms whom ignore theirs.

3.6季氏旅于泰山,冉有(ran)曰:女弗能救與?…對曰:不能…曰:嗚呼!曾謂泰山不如林放乎?(參閱3.4)

本章斥季氏非禮祭于泰山

季氏去祭泰山,老師對冉有說:你不能糾正這事麼? …冉有答道:我不能; …老師歎道:唉!難道泰山之神不如林放嗎? (言泰山神必不受此非禮之諂祭也)

女弗能救與:(女同汝)你不能糾正此事麼?

難道泰山之神會不如林放?(言泰山必不受此非禮之諂祭)

:祭名.古者,天子祭泰山.季之旅,僭天子之禮也.

冉求:522-489人,字子有,亦稱冉有又稱有子,孔子弟子,有才藝,性謙退,季氏之宰.

The Ji family was about to sacrifice to Tai Mountain.(overstepping their authority)

Confucius said to Ran You:

Can you not rectify this event?

Ran You answered: I cannot.

Confucius said:Alas! Are you saying that the Tai Mountain is not so discerning as Ling Fang?

3.7 曰:君子無所爭,必也射乎!揖讓而升,下而飲. 其爭也君子.

本章君子爭之風度

…老師說:君子對人沒有什麼相爭.有的話,只有在比射的時候.但也相互揖讓,再升堂較射.射畢,下堂,飲酒,就說是爭吧,也是君子之風的爭啊.

儀禮[書名]大射禮:射韝(gou粵讀究,古代士卒的臂套),{司射適次袒決遂}

:射韝也; 射韝:臂捍也.

古代射禮有四.大射,賓射,燕射,鄉射.

Confucius said: A virtuous person does not compete.If aarchery must be considered as a competition,a virtuous person bows complaisantly,to his competitors; thus he ascends the hall,descends,and drinks to salute his rivals.Even competing is in a  virtuous manner.

3.8 子夏問曰:巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮,素以為絢兮.何謂也?子曰:繪事後素,曰:禮後乎? 曰:起也者商也!始可與言詩已矣!

本章記孔子子夏,可與之論詩.

子夏:詩上說,美好地笑著雙頰微動,多美啊,美豔的秋波流轉,兩目黑白分明多美啊!粉白素底上施上五彩的顏色,更見鮮明豔麗.這三句是何義?…老師說:繪畫,先把粉底打好,然後才加五彩的顏色;…子夏說:這不是使人先要有忠信的美質,才可用禮來文飾麼? …老師說:啟發我思想的是啊,像這樣可以和你論詩了.

巧笑巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮:見{詩經}衛風碩人篇二章; 素以為絢兮:是逸詩.不見今三百篇中; 繪事後素:謂先以粉為底,然後再施采,即繪畫之事後於素.譬如人要先有美質,然後才可施以文飾; 禮後乎:言人先要有忠信之質,而後再以禮文飾之; :子夏名.

子夏:前507-?姓卜名商,衛國溫人,孔子晚年的得意弟子(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏)..子夏繼孔子之後,系統性傳授儒家經典的第一人.被後世譽為傳經鼻祖.他晚年是戰國時期開始,到魏國西河一帶教學,開創的{西河學派}培育出大批經國治世良材,並成為孔儒支流法家成長的搖籃.

Zixia asked:What is the meaning of this poett: The pretty dimples of her artful smile! The well-defined black and white of her eye! The plain ground for colourings;

Confucius said: The technique of laying on the colours following the preparation of a purified ground.

Zixia said: Rites is a subsequent matter? (virture is primarily a must)

Confucius said: It is Shang {Zixia} who can bring out the profound meaning of the poet. Now I can begin to talk about the odes with you.

3.9 曰:禮吾能言之.不足征也,禮吾能言之.不足征也,文獻不足故也.足,則吾能征之矣.

本章說夏殷之禮文獻已佚,不足征驗.

…老師說:朝的禮,我能說出來.但它的後代杞國不足以作證;朝的禮,我能說出來.但它的後代宋國不足以作證;這是因為他們的歷史文獻和賢者不夠的緣故.如果文獻和賢者充足,我就可以用來作證.

:古代國名.在今河南杞縣,夏禹後代的封國; 征:證明;  :古國名,故城在今河南商丘市一帶.商朝之後裔;所封之國; 文獻:文指典籍,獻指賢人.

Confucius said: I could describe the ceremonies of the Xia dynasty, but Chi cannot sufficiently attest my words. I could describe the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, but Sung cannot not sufficiently attest my words. They cannot do so because of the insufficiency of their archives and savants. If those were sufficient I could adduce them in support of my words.

3.10曰:禘自既灌而往者,吾不欲觀之矣.

本章斥之禘祭非禮.

…老師說:我觀看禘祭,在初獻以香酒灌地降神之後,便不想再看了.

:帝王之大祭.成王以周公有大勳,賜魯可用天子之大祭.然不合禮.

禘祭:上自始祖,下及歷代皆合祭,五年一祭.

:祭中初獻禮,用煮香草和黍(shu)酒灌地以降神.

Confucius said: At the grand sacrifice, after the pouring out of the libation, I have no desire to watch on thereafter.

3.11或問之說,曰:不知也.知其說者,之於天下也,其如示諸斯乎?;指其掌.

本章言若有能知祭之義,可以之治天下,不難了!

有人孔子禮的理論.老師說:我不知道.知道這種理論的人對於治理天下,就像把東西放在這裏一樣容易吧.(孔子指著手掌地說)

:di粵讀蒂;古代祭名; 不知也:孔子因不滿國君僭用禘禮故不願深言之,祭為國君越禮之舉也.

Someone asked about the Grand Sacrifice.

Confucius said:I do not know. He who knew its meaning would find it as easy to govern kingdom as to look on this – (Confucius pointing to his palm)

3.12 祭如在,祭神如神在.子曰:吾不與祭,如不祭.

本章言祭禮當以誠敬為主.

祭祖先的時候,就好像祖先在現場一樣.祭神,就好像神在面前;…老師說:我如果沒有參加祭禮,縱有人代祭,也如沒祭.

吾不與祭,如不祭:我如沒參加祭禮,縱有人代祭,也如同沒有祭.

祭如在:言祭先人,必誠敬其意如同生時一樣.

He who sacrificed ancesters, (should) as if ancesters were present. He who sacrificed to spirits, as if the spirits were present.

Confucius said: I consider my not being present at the sacrifice as if I had not sacrifice.

3.13 王孫賈問曰:與其媚于奧,甯媚於灶(zao灶粵),何謂也?子曰:不然!獲罪於天,無所禱也.

本章言人如不違天理,何用去求神.

王孫賈問道:‘與其巴結奧神,不如巴結灶神.’這句話是什麼意思?…老師說:不對,如果得罪了天,再怎麼祈禱都沒有用了.

王孫賈:大夫, 奧:室中西南隅,為家中尊者之神所棲處(親幸).灶: 灶(zao,灶也)灶神(比喻權臣).

Wang Sunja asked: What does it mean ‘It is better to be obsequious to the furnace then to the southwest corner?’

Confucius said:Not so. He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can toady(pray) for help.2a

3.14 曰:周監於二代,鬱鬱乎文哉!吾從.

本章贊代禮樂制度文物之美盛.

…老師說:代的禮制,是看看夏殷兩代的加以修訂.因此的禮樂文物美盛極了,我贊成遵從代的

:猶視也; 二代:(前2070-前1600),商殷(前1600-前1046)二代; 鬱鬱:美盛.

Confucius said:Zhou had the advantage of examining its two previous dynasties. How complete and elegant are its norm.I adopt Zhou.

3.15 入大(太)廟,每事問.或曰:孰謂鄹(鄹同周)人之子知禮乎?入太廟,每事問.聞之曰:是禮也.

本章孔子謂敬謹自謙,禮之道也.

孔子入太廟助祭.遇事便問.有人說:誰說這鄹邑的年輕人知道禮呢?他入太廟,遇事便問;…老師聽到此,便:參與祭典應敬謹,道就是禮啊!

大廟:大即太,周公之廟.鄹:鄹同周.孔子父親叔梁紇被封邑大夫.

When Confucius enters the grand temple,he asks about everything. Someone comments,: Who say that the son of Shu Liangge(confucius’s father) knows the rites?! He entered the temple and asked about everything.

Confucius heard the remark and said: This (asking about everything) is itself a rite.

3.16 曰:射不主皮,為力不同科,古之道也.

本章言射禮中之主旨,以比較射藝,不比較力度.

老師說:射禮中比教射藝注重中的,不注重在射穿皮布.因各人的體力不一.此乃時的道理啊!

射不主皮:射主於中鵠(target),不主穿皮布.

Confucius said: In archery, the principal is not to penetrate the leather of the target,because individual strength is not equal. This was our ancient concept.

3.17 子貢欲去告朔之餼羊(xi),曰:賜也爾愛其羊,我愛其禮.

本章禮不可廢.

子貢將每月告朔的羊免除掉;…老師說:你是愛惜那一隻羊,我卻是愛惜這種禮.(恐免除一隻羊,影響到告朔之禮也廢了)

告朔:禮,每年冬季天子頒佈次年每月之朔日.諸侯受而藏之祖廟.以後每月朔日,用一殺而未烹的羊,祭告祖廟,請頒佈朔日之意; 去:廢除; 餼: xi,贈送之食物(例:餼之以粟)

子貢:國人.(貢本字贛),姓端木名賜.孔子弟子,有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,魯.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒于齊.

Zigong wished to waive the offering of a sheep in the sacrifice within the inauguration of the first day of each month.

 Confucius said: Zigong,you cherish the sheep, I cherish the rite.

3.18 曰:事君盡禮,人以為諂也.

本章明事君之道,以正君君臣臣之義.

老師說:事君能盡禮的,世人反說是諂媚.

事君盡禮:此諭為.三家大夫皆強,君弱.眾皆趨附三家.見孔子盛禮事君疑其為諂也.

Confucius said:To attend full obligation of rites in serving the prince is accounted by people as being obsequious.

3.19 定公問:君使臣,臣事君,如之何? 孔子對曰:君使臣以禮,臣事君以忠.

本章明君臣之禮.

魯定公:君使用臣,臣事奉君,應該怎樣的呢? …老師說:君使用臣要以禮.臣事奉君要盡忠.

定公:君,名,前509年(周敬王十一年),哀公(前494年)之父.諡曰.

Duke Ting asked how should a prince treat his ministers, and how should ministers serve their prince.

Confucius replied: A prince should treat his ministers according to the appropriate rites; Ministers should serve their prince with loyalty.

3.20 曰:關雎樂而不淫,哀而不傷.

本章讚美{詩經}關雎,哀樂皆不過分.

老師說:{關雎}這一篇,有樂,不流於放蕩.有哀,也不過分悲傷.

關雎:{詩經}國風周南中首

.ju,鳥名如雎鳩,王雎;*有書誤印為sui,地名如河南睢縣

:過分也.

Confucius said: The Guan Jiu ode is expressive of enjoyment all but excessive (dissipating), and grief of all but harmful(debilitating).

3.21 哀公問社於宰我.宰我對曰:夏後氏以松,人以柏,周人以栗.曰:使民戰慄.子聞之曰:成事不說,遂事不諫,既往不咎.

本章言孔子宰我妄言社樹之義.

哀公宰我社主用什麼作神.宰我答:夏後氏用松樹.人用柏樹,人用栗樹.這是使人民見到害怕得發抖.老師聽到這話很不滿意的說:已經做過的事就不必再解釋了.已經完成了的事就不必再挽救了.已經過去的事就不必再追究了.

:所以祀其地之神.立社必樹其地所宜之木,即以其樹木為社主. 栗:栗

宰我:,字子我,也稱宰我,國人.宰予口齒伶俐,能說善辯,被列為孔門四科十哲(言語科)之一.孔子常派遣他出使各國,如“使于齊”,“使于楚”等.宰予遇事有自己的主見.

Duke Ai asked Zaiwo about the altars’icon for the spirits of land.

Zaiwo replied: The Xia stood Pine tree as  icon;Yin stood Cypress tree as icon;Zhou stood  Chestnut tree as icon;effectively thereby to cause their people to be in awe.When Confucius heard it, he said: Things that are done,it is needless to talk about; Things that have had their course,it is superfluous to remonstrate about. Things that are past, it is needless to blame.

3.22曰:管仲之器小哉? 或曰:管仲儉乎? 曰:管事有三歸,官事不攝,焉得儉?然則管仲知禮乎? 曰:邦君樹塞門.管氏亦樹塞門.邦君為兩君之好,有反坫.管氏亦有反坫.管氏而知禮,孰不知禮?

本章言管仲的識量不大.不知禮.

…老師說:管仲(禮)的識量小啊! …有人說‘管仲很儉麼?’…老師說:管仲有三處歸舍,各聘家臣分職獨立管事,不相兼代.怎可算是節儉?…又有人:那麼管仲知禮嗎?…老師說:國君有屏門,管仲家也有屏門.國君為兩國君友好宴會,設反酌的玷台,管仲的家也設反.如果說管仲知禮,那麼誰還不知禮呢?

管仲:名夷吾,大夫,相桓公霸諸侯; 三歸:家有三處館.另三歸:台名;

官事不攝:每公館皆有官以司其事(butler); 樹塞門:門內設屏以蔽門外; 反:dian坫粵讀店,土築之處,古禮兩君相會,主人酌酒進賓,飲畢,賓反酌於.

Confucius said:Small indeed was the capacity of Guan Zhong for rites!

Someone said: Was Guan Zhong thrifty?

Replied: Guan has three wellings. They all have their owner butler.How can you say Guan Zhong is thrifty?

Asked: Then, did Guan Zhong know the rites?

Confucius said:The princes of States have an entrance blockage screen, Guan Zhong copied likewise.The princes of States when meeting visitors,had an designated area on which to place their inverted cups. Guan Zhong had also designated such a stand.If Guan Zhong knew the rites,who does not know rites? 

3.23 大師曰:樂其可知也,始作翕如也.(讀縱)之純如也.皦如也,繹如也,以成.

本章記孔子魯太師論樂之道.

師告訴國樂官有關奏樂之道:樂的過程可以知道的.當開始,各種樂器合奏,接著聲音放開,音調諧和,節奏分明,連續不斷,直到這一套樂章完成.

:xi粵讀邑,相合和順也; 從:zong粵讀縱,同縱,放也; 繹:yi粵讀亦,相續不斷如抽絲; 皦:jiao粵讀皎,清晰也.

太師:樂官名; 翕如也:猶恰如此;

Confucius speaking to the grand music master of Lu, said:the way to perform music is known.At the commencement of the piece, All parts should sound together. As it jproceeds, they should be in harmony while severally distinct and flowing without break, and thus on to the conclusion.

3.24封人請見,曰:君子之至於斯也,吾未嘗不得見也; 從者見之.出曰:二三子何患於喪乎?天下之無道也久矣,夫將以夫子為木鐸.

本章記孔子以德智教導世人.

封人要求拜見(孔子),說道:凡賢人到了這地方,我無不會見的; …隨從的弟子們領他去見孔子.旣見了出來對弟子們說:諸位啊!何必憂慮現無官職呢?天下無道混亂已很久啦,天意將要使你們老師做一位警世的木鐸教導世人.

封人:,衛邑.封人:掌封疆關口之官; 君子:當時稱賢人; 二三子:稱孔子弟子們; 喪:失位也; 木鐸:金口木舌之鈴,發佈政教時用,振之以警眾.

…a guardian of a border post once characterized Confucius as the [wooden tongue for a bell]of the age,sounding Heaven

3.25 謂:韶盡美矣,又盡善矣,謂盡美矣,未盡善也.

本章論韶,兩樂之美善.

…老師評論說:韶樂可算十分美盛,所蘊涵的意義,也可算到達至善的境地.樂亦可算十分美盛,不過,所涵蘊的意義,尚未到至善境地.(含有殺伐之聲)

:虞舜(前2100年)時之舞樂(參閱7.13); :西周 武王發(前1100年)時之舞樂.

Confucius said of the melody of shao,that it was extremely beautiful and also extremely perfect.He said of the Wu that it was extremely beautiful but not extremely perfect.

3.26 曰:居上不寬,為禮不敬,臨喪不哀,吾何以觀之哉?

本章論觀察人之道.

…老師說:居在上位,不能以寬厚待下.參加行禮,態度不恭敬.遭臨到喪事,不夠哀傷.我還用什麼來觀察他呢?

為禮:參與禮節;臨喪:遭遇喪事.

Confucius said: Those authorities in lack of generosity, pay no respect in keeping the rites, attending funerals and not expressing condolences, What else do I need to assess them?!

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