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堯曰  

2011-08-08 19:15:46|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯堯曰 第二十篇 共三章

堯曰 第二十篇 共三章

 

20.1 :!.天之曆數在爾躬,允執其中,四海困窮,天祿永終;…亦以命.

:予小子,敢用玄牡,敢昭告于皇皇后帝:有罪不敢赦,帝臣不蔽,簡在帝心,朕躬有罪,無以萬方,萬方有罪,罪在朕躬;…有大賚,善人是富.雖有,不如仁人,百姓有過,在予一人.謹權量,審法度,脩廢官,四方之政行焉.興滅國,繼絕世,擧逸民,天下之民歸心焉.所重民:,,.寬則得眾,信則民任焉,敏則有功,公則說().

本章明二帝三王之道.崔述{唐虞考信錄;共四卷}以為古帝王之事,不可信.錢穆{論語新解}曰一篇章節之問,多留(xia粵讀喇).疑辨遂滋.定論難求.

:!舜啊!上天的曆數,輪到你的身上,你誠能把着這中道.如果四海之內困窮,你為君之祿,也就終了; …,也以樣的話告誡大禹,向天禱告說:我小子,用黑牛做祭品,敢明告偉大的上帝,只要有罪的人,我不敢赦免他,那天下的賢人,都是上帝的臣民,我不敢蒙蔽起來,不去任用他.我本人有罪,不要連累到人民,天下百姓有罪,罪該由我一人來負; …周武王:得上天的大賜,善人最多; …又說:我雖有至親的人,不如有仁德的人.百姓有罪過,歸在我一人身上;…謹慎制訂權衡制度,詳訂禮樂法度,舊的官職廢了的,重薪修訂.四方的政令,便易推行了.復興那被滅亡了的國家,接續那要斷絕的世族.選用遺逸的賢人.天下的民心都歸向了.在位者所重視的人民生活,民食,喪葬,祭祀,寬厚待民,便得到人民擁戴,信實待民,便得到人民信賴.做事勤快,就見到功績,對人公正無私,民心自會悅服.

:唐堯虞舜之辭; :嗟歎聲; 曆數:帝王相繼的次第; :信也; :曰以下,成湯告天之辭; :商湯之名; 帝臣不蔽:天下賢人,皆上帝之臣,已不敢蔽; :; 有大賚,善人是富:此兩句乃受天命伐紂告天之辭,義為受天大賜,富多善人; :至親; 謹權量:以下明二帝三王政化; 公則說():政教公平,人民同悅;

Yao said:Oh! Ye Shun, The succession enumerated by heaven has enlisted you respecfully.

 ‘Faithfully hold fast the middle path. Should there be predicament and poverty within the four seas,your award from heaven will be terminated forever.’

Shun also pronounced the same words when giving his behest to Yu.

(When Tang sent a punitive  expedition to tyrant Jie of Xia dynasty)He made an oath to heaven: I,Lu, your child,venture to sacrifice black ox ,and venture to proclaim nbefore youawesome emperor of heaven,that I dare not forgivethe sinners ,nor store up your talented people. They will be selected in minds of emperors. Should I have sins, They will not embroil my people anywhere beneath heaven. If people anywhere beneath heaven have sins, they are all my fault.

Zhou received big award from heaven. They were rich with perfect people.

King Wu said:Although I have my own kinsmen,they are not as close to me as those who are benevolent.. If the people do wrong, let me be blamed for all the mistakesalone. Ensure discreet measure for power. Examine the rules of justice.

Restore the discarded offices. Thus policies in every direction beneath heaven  will be effectively working.Revive states that had been destroyed,reconnect lines of succession that were cut,promote those who had been neglected, all hearts of the people under heaven will then arrive. Priority is therefore: people, the food, the rites of mourning and sacrificial ceremony.

Generosity wins all.Sincerity wins the people their trust. diligence brings success,and justice delights everone.

20.2 子張孔子:何如斯可以從政矣? …:尊五美,屏四悪,斯可以從政矣; …子張:何謂五美? …:君子惠而不費,勞而不怨,欲而不貪,泰而不驕,威而不猛; 子張:何謂惠而不費? …:因民之所利而利之,斯不亦惠而不費乎?擇可勞而勞之,又誰怨?欲仁而得仁,又焉貪?君子無眾寡,無小大,無敢慢,斯不亦泰而不驕乎?君子正其衣冠,尊其瞻視,儼然人望而畏之,不亦威而不猛乎?…子張:何謂四惡?…:不教而殺為之虐.不戒視成為之暴.慢令致期謂之賊.猶之與人也,出納之吝,謂之有司.

本章記孔子詳告子張為政之要道.

子張孔子:要怎樣才可以從政呢? …老師說:尊崇五美,摒除四悪.這就可以從政了;…子張:怎樣叫做五美呢?…老師說:在上位者加惠於人民而在公家卻沒有甚麼損失.使人民勞役,而人民並無怨言.雖有欲望,並不多貪求.居於上位言行安泰,不以此驕慢於人.有威嚴而不兇猛待民;…子張:怎樣叫做惠而不費呢?…老師說:就人民所應得的利益而儘量讓他們去獲得.這不是叫做惠而不費麼?選擇可使勞役的人去使他們為公家服勞役,這誰會有怨言呢?君子所欲的是仁,而有機會去行仁政,這那能說是貪呢?在上位對於無論人的多少,事的大小,都一樣地不敢隨便怠慢,這不是叫做泰而不驕麼?在上位者,端正着衣冠,莊嚴自己的容態,很莊重地使人見到生出敬畏之心,這不是叫做威而不猛麼?…子張:怎樣叫做四惡呢?…老師說:不去教導人民,等到犯罪就殺, 這就叫做[].不先告知,臨時要看成績,這就叫做[].發生遲緩延誤,反而要求限期內完成, 這就叫做[].好似把財物給人一樣,當發放經手的東西,特別顯得吝嗇.這叫做有點像那些管理財務的小官[有司]的小氣作風.

:徐去; 而不費:使民有惠又不費公帑; 尊其瞻視:莊嚴自己的儀態; 不戒視成:不預先吩咐而臨時要看成績; 慢令致期:發令遲緩而要限期做好; :吝嗇拖延; 出納之吝謂之有:出納,這裡是指支出的意思.[有司]管理某一具體事情稱[有司],這裡指管理財務的小官.

子張:顓孫,孔子弟子.孔子48.陳國人,孔子曾說過師也過(11.14),師也辟(11.16).

Zizhang asked Confucius:What is the method to conduct a government properly?

Confucius said:esteem the five virtues,avoid the four vices, the government will be conducted properly.

Zizhang asked:What are the five virtues?

The master said:Run a good Altruistic system without excessive expenditure;labour the people without arousing their resentment; desirous but not greedy; elegant but not arrogant; awesome but not fierceful.

Zizhang asked: How to be altruistic and thrifty?

Confucius said:only spending money on those projects that are actually benefitngt people, is this not altruistic without wasting expenditure? Select particular skilful people for exceptional works, who would be complaining? If his desires were humanity bases,and he gets them, who can say that he is greedy? Despite matters for/of mass or single, big or small,dare not be supine, is thisnot elegant but not arrogant? A superior man straightens his robe and properly wears his hat,dignify his countenance,such a stern and formidable look, is this not awesome but not fierceful?

Zizhang asked:What are the four vices”

The master said:To punish people to death before educating them, this is called Cruelty. To require them to complete the task without giving them enough warnings, this is called Oppression.To give careless order and demand for it in due course, this is called Robbery.When dealing with charity affairs,stingy in payment and or rewards, this is called as penny pinching as a junior accountant.

 

20.3:不知命,無以為君子也.不知禮,無以立也.不知言,無以知人也.

本章言為人當知命,知禮,知言.

老師說:如果不知天地自然流行的當然之理,便不能做一個君子.不知禮,就無法立身處世.不知人的話中真假是非,就無法辨别人的好壞了.

知命:了知人的窮達之分; 知言:聽其言而知其真偽是非也.

Confucius said:He who does not know the rules of nature, can hardly become a superior man. He who does not know the rules of propriety cannot find a stand in the society. He who can not identify true words from the false, cannot separate good people from the bad.

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