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2011年08月09日  

2011-08-09 14:03:04|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯微子 第十八篇 共十一章

微子 第十八篇 共十一章

18.1微子去之,箕子為之奴,比干諫而死.孔子:殷有三仁矣.

本章言三人的行為雖不同,然皆為仁人也.

紂王無道,微子離開走了,箕子被囚為奴,比干苦諫被殺了,孔子:殷代有三個仁人呢!

微子:,商紂之庶兄,紂王無道而離去; 箕子:胥餘,之叔父,直諫被囚.因佯狂受辱;比干:之叔父,苦諫被剖心而死;

Weizi fled from him(Tyrant Emeror Zhou of Shang),Qizi became his slave,Bigan remonstrated him and was put to death.

Confucius said: The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue.

18.2柳下惠為士師,三黜.人曰:子未可以去乎? …:直道而事人,焉往而不三黜? 枉道而事人,何必去父母之邦?

本章柳下惠之行.

柳下惠做獄官,多次被革職,有人說:你不可以離開()國嗎? …柳下惠:如果我按照正直的道理事奉君主,到哪裡去不會被多次革職呢?如果不按照正直的道理事奉君主,又何必一定要離開父母所在的國家呢?

士師:獄官; 三黜:三度被革職; 父母之邦:祖國;

When Luxia Wei was chief warden,he was thrice dismissed.Someone asked him:Are you not able to leave yet?

Luxia Wei said:If I choose the  upright way to serve people ,where on earth can I go and not being thrice dismissed? If I choose the crooked way to serve people,why is it necessary for me to leave my parents’ state?

18.3齊景公孔子:季氏則吾不能,季孟之間待之; …:吾老矣!不能用也;…孔子.

本章記孔子,不能用而去.崔述{洙泗考信錄}言此章所記與事實有不符,疑非孔氏之遺書.

齊景公講到接待孔子的禮節時说:如果要像國君對待季氏那樣,我是不能夠的;我只能用低季氏而高於孟氏的適中禮節來對待他; …後來又說:我老了,不能任用孔子;...孔子便離開國了.

明朝<<石刻聖跡圖:晏嬰沮封>>,齊景公孔子問政,孔子:節財;…景公很高興,欲張尼溪封給孔子.晏嬰對景公說:他所主張的效法古人是不能實行的.孔丘居傲自大是不能做臣子的.國君想任用他改變齊國風俗,不符合先王之道啊!…齊景公聽從晏嬰意見.孔子:我老了,不能用你了;…孔子遂離開齊.

季孟:三卿,季氏最貴,季孟,其禮亦隆矣.

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,東壁,幼有奇才,乾隆間舉於鄉,嘉慶間歷知福建羅源,上杭諸縣,有廉聲.後乞歸,以著述終老.之學以考證為主.不墨守舊說.無從考證者輒以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚夥.考信錄最有名.

Duke Jing of Qi was considering how to treat Confucius for his appointment.Thus said:I cannot treat him as the prince of Lu treat the Ji clan.I can probably offer him a position as in between the Ji clan and the Meng family.

Duke Jing further said:I am already old. Not useful anymore.

Confucius left.

18.4人歸女樂,季桓子受之,三日不朝,孔子.

本章言邪正不並立.孔子見在不能行道,遂離去.

國贈送一隊女樂師給,季桓子接受下來,君臣們一同觀賞,廢了朝禮三天,孔子就走了.

:,贈送也; 人歸女樂:定公十四年,孔子司寇,攝相事,齊人懼,贈女樂師於.

明朝<<石刻聖跡圖:女樂文馬>>:孔子執政,國日益強盛.國害怕魯國稱霸諸侯,便采用了黎鉏(chu粵讀鋤,本字義)的建議.贈送給魯定公女樂八十人,文馬三十駟(四匹馬一駟).企圖使國君臣不和,耿于玩樂.君沉湎于女色而怠於朝政.孔子不忍心離開國而宣揚國君的過錯.及至魯定公連膰(fan讀凡,宗廟祭祀用的烤)也沒按規定分送給大臣,孔子只得辭官離開國去周游列國.

季桓子:大夫,; 三日不朝:定公季孫君臣相與觀之,廢朝禮三天.

The people of Qi sent Lu a present of female musicians.Ji Huanzi accepted it.He was absent from the court for three days.Confucius left Lu.

18.5楚狂接輿歌而過孔子:鳳兮!鳳兮!何德之衰?往者不可諫,來者猶可追.已而!已而!今之從政者殆而! …孔子,欲與之言,趨而辟之,不得與之言.

本章記楚狂為一有道之士.孔子當知難而退.

國一個狂人,接着孔子之車後而歌,超越過車前唱道:鳳啊! 鳳啊!怎麼你的德性會如此衰退呢?已過去的也不用說了,正來的還可來得及,算了吧!算了吧! …如今當政的,那一個不是危殆無可救藥了呢! …孔子下車,想和他談談,那狂人趕快地避開了,沒法和他交談.

楚狂接輿:楚之隱士賢人,佯狂避世,以其接孔子之車接輿,論語中的隱士多以事命名,如看門的稱{晨門},執杖的稱{丈人}; :靈鳥,有道則見,無道則隱,以比孔子; 何德之衰:諷刺孔子世已無道而不隱去為德衰也; :無藥可救也; :避開也;

A madman of of Chu,while meeting Confucius’carriage,passed the front of the carriage singing:Phoenix Oh! Phoenix Oh! How feeble is your virtue! As to the past,remonstration was impossible.future is yet to catch up with.Its over! Its over! Dangerous are those working in government.

Confucius alighted hurrily to talk to him.The madman eschewed quickly.Confucius was therefore unable to speak with him.

18.6長沮 桀溺,耦而耕,孔子過之,使子路問津焉.長沮:夫執輿者為誰?…子路:孔丘;…:是魯孔丘?…:是也;…:是知津矣;…問於桀溺. 桀溺:子為誰?…:仲由;…:是也;…:是魯孔丘之徒與?…對曰:;…:滔滔者天下皆是也,而誰以易之?*與其從辟人之士也,豈若從辟世之士哉?…耰而不輟.子路行以告.夫子憮然曰:鳥獸不可與,吾非斯人之徒與? 而誰與?天下有道,不與易也;

本章記孔子苦心濟世,而避世之隱者不明其心.

長沮 桀溺二人並立在田裡耕作,孔子經過那裡,子路問渡口在那裡.長沮:那車上執着馬韁的是誰啊? …子路:孔丘; …長沮:國的孔丘? …子路:是的; …長沮:那他應該是知道路的啊! …子路桀溺,桀溺:你是誰?…子路:我是仲由;…桀溺:是魯孔丘的門生麼?…子路:是的;…桀溺:混亂的樣子,天下到處都是如此呢.又有誰能改變這局面?况且你跟從避人的學者,倒不如跟從避世的學者吧?…說話間仍然覆着不停的種籽;…子路走去告訴孔子,老師悵失地說:人不可與山林裡的鳥獸同在一起生活(避世也),我不跟這些世人在一起(避人)還跟誰在一起呢?如果天下正道在流行,孔丘用不着要改變什麽了.

明朝<<石刻聖跡圖:子路>>魯哀公四年(491),孔子葉地返回,忘記了渡口在那裡.看到長沮桀溺在耕田.便派子路去打聽渡口.長沮 桀溺兩個人卻說:“滔滔的洪水到處都是,誰能改變它呢?與其跟隨躲避世人的人不如隨從躲避世道的人啊!”.說罷,依舊耕田.

長沮 桀溺:兩個不知真名的隐士; :並耕; 問津:問濟渡之處(渡江之碼頭也); 執輿:駕車也;滔滔:指世道混濁的樣子; :避也; *:(汝也); :下種籽後以土蓋平; 憮然:悵惘失意的樣子;

辟人之士:孔子; 辟世之士:長沮 桀溺兩個隱士;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Changju and Jieni were sowing together in the field.Confucius was passing them and send Zilu to enquire where about is the ford.

Changju asked: Who is that man holding the reins in the carriage?

Zilu replied: He is Kong Qiu.

Changju asked:Is he Kong Qiu of Lu?

‘Yes.’Zilu said.

Changju said: He should then know where the ford is.

Zilu then asked Jieni.

Jieni asked:Who are you?

‘I am Zongyu’Zilu replied.

Jieni asked:Are you a disciple of Kong Qiu of Lu?

Zilu replied:Yes,I am.

Jieni said:Floodings,floodings like everywhere beneath heaven.and who can divert them? Moreover,rather to follow one who eschews people is it not better for you to follow us who shun the world ?

While saying so, they did not stop bending down covering seeds with soil.

Zilu went to tell the master.

Confucius sadly said:We can not herd with birds and beasts.If I do not associate with these people,the mankind,with whom shall I associate with? If the Way prevails under heaven,I need not be trying to change anything.

18.7子路從而後,遇丈人以杖荷蓧.子路問曰:子見夫子乎?…丈人曰:四體不勤,五穀不分,孰為夫子? …植其杖而芸.子路拱而立,子路宿,殺雞為黍而食之,見其二子焉.明日,子路行以告.:隱者也;…使子路反見之,至則行矣.子路:不仕無議.長幼之節,不可廢也;君臣之義,如之何其廢之? 欲潔其身而亂大倫.君子之仕也,行其義也.道之不行,已知之矣!

本章記一隱者,亦不明孔子之欲行道也.(類參閱14.41)

子路跟從孔子,落在後面,遇着一位老者,用着手杖担着一件除草的竹器,子路向前問道:你曾見到我的老師嗎? …老者说:手足四肢都一點也不勞動,五穀都不認識,誰是你的老師? …(老者)便插好手杖,就鋤草去了;…子路斂着雙手很恭敬地站在那裡.老者就留子路過宿.殺了雞做飯給子路,叫兩個兒子出來拜見子路.第二天,子路辭別走了,見到孔子,就把昨天的事,告訴孔子.老師說:是位隱士啊!…子路回去再看他,到了老人的家,老人卻已出去了.子路便和他的兩個兒:有道之士,不出來從政,是不應該的,長幼之序,不可廢棄,君臣之義,怎可以廢棄呢?為了要保持己身的高潔,而弄亂了人倫的大道.君子出來為政,是行君臣之義的大道,於正道之不能行,這是我們早就知道的啊!(明知不可為而為之).

丈人:持杖老者,真名不詳的隱者; 荷蓧:負着竹器,/鋤草的工具; 四體不動五穀不分:不參加勞動工作,不能分辨五穀,責備子路不事農耕; :立之也; :除草也; :合手示敬也; 大倫:指人倫之大者如,父子之有親,君臣之有義等; 

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu had fallen behind while following Confucius.Zilu met an old man with a staff,carrying it on his shoulder with a seed-grain crate.Zilu asked:Have you seen my master?

The old man replied:Four  limbs are in lack of  travil,unable to distinguish five grains ,What kind of a master is he?

While saying that,he planted his staff into the ground and began picking his herbs.

Zilu stood by holding his arms respectfully..

The old man kept Zilu in his house for the night.He slaughtered a fowl,cooked it with broomcorn to feed Zilu.He also introduced Zilu his two sons.

Next day,Zilu went on his way reported all to his master.

Confucius said:He is a recluse.

Confucius sent Zilu back to see him but found the old man had gone.

Zilu said: Not to take office is not righteous.The relation mode of the old and the young must not be forsaken. How can the duty that binds the prince to his minister to be so void? Wishing to purify himself alone hence the moral relationship is completely disarrayed.

So for a superior man to take his office,he is only acting righteously.The goal is seemingly unreachable,even for that,he is well aware of it for a long time.

18.8 逸民:,叔齊,虞仲,,朱張,柳下惠,少連.:不降其志,不辱其身,,叔齊? …:柳下惠,少連,降志辱身矣! 言中倫,行中慮,其斯而已矣!…:虞仲,夷逸,隐居放言,身中清,廢中權;…我則異!無可無不可.

本章論逸民七人.各人之高行.

遺逸的隱者:,叔齊,虞仲,,朱張,柳下惠,少連.老師說:不使志氣降屈,不使己身受辱,那是,叔齊? 稱道柳下惠,少連使志氣屈降,使身受辱”,然說話合乎道理,行為合乎思考,他們能這樣也就可以了! 稱道虞仲,,“隱居起來,放肆着言論,本身是合乎了清高,被廢中的言論,亦可視為權宜之道”…又說:我便跟他們不一樣,只依這而行,沒有什麽可以也沒有什麼不可以的;

<再淺譯上文>

隱逸不已當官的人有:,叔齊,虞仲,,朱張,柳下惠,少連.孔子:不肯屈降自己的意志,不肯紆身受辱,這就是,叔齊;…又說:柳下惠,少連雖降志辱身,但說話合乎義理次序,行為經過思慮,合乎眾人的願望,他們不過如此罷了;…又說虞仲,夷逸,雖然避世隱居,說話放縱不拘,但卻保持了自己的清白.放棄官位,全身自保,合乎權變的道理.我卻和這些人不,沒什麼可以,也沒有什麼不可以.

逸民:遺逸不在位之人; 虞仲:仲雍,太白之弟,後人荆蠻; 夷逸,朱張:生平不詳; 少連:東夷之子; :理也;身中清,廢中權:隱居獨善,合乎道之清.被废棄中隱居放言,亦道中之權宜也.

Hermits:Boyi,Shuqi,Yuxhong,Yiyi,Zhuzhang,Luxia Hui and Shaolin.

Confucius said: Those who would not lower their ambitions,or bring humiliation upon themselves were Boyi and Shuqi.It was said of  Luxia Hui and Shaolian had submitted their wills and brought humiliation upon themselves,but their words were justifiable and their actions were after considerations. These were quite enough to glorify them. It may be said of Yuzhong and Yiyi that lived in seclusion,but talked unrestrainedly.Kept themselves clean as they relinquished their rights to stand in the government. For me,I am just different from them. There is no ‘to be’ or ‘not to be’in me.

18.9大師摯,飯干,三飯繚,四飯缼,鼓方叔入於河,鼗武入於漢,少師陽,擊磬襄入於海.

本章載之事與孔子無關.崔述疑此章乃後人所入者.{崔述洙泗考信錄}…也許本章非全文,缺句已散佚矣.

師摯去了,亞飯干到了,到了,四缺飯到了,鼓方叔去了黄河,播鼗武到了漢水附近;少師陽,擊磬襄都入海到海島去了.

大師:之樂官長,可能是{泰伯篇}師摯,參閱8.15; 亞飯,三飯,四飯:皆為以音樂侑食(古代勸人吃喝)之官; 播鼗:/搖也,tao鼗粤讀淘,拔浪皷,有長柄,來回轉動時,用短繩繫在皷兩旁的小皷槌擊皷發聲; 少師:樂官之輔手也;

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,東壁,幼有奇才,乾隆間舉於鄉,嘉慶間歷知福建羅源,上杭諸縣,有廉聲.後乞歸,以著述終老.學以考證為主.不墨守舊說.無從考證者輒以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚夥.考信錄最有名.

Zhi the grand musician went to Qi.Gan the second food adviser went to Chu.Liao the third food adviser went to Cai.Que the fourth food adviser went to Qin.Fangshu the chief drummer went the Yellow River direction.Wu,The small handdrum master went the Han River direction.Shao Yang the assistant and Xiang the chief master of stone-chime went to an island in the sea.  

N.B.This chapter maybe is connected with 14.39(if we consider the last two as one team who went the same direction as master and assistant)

18.10周公魯公:君子不施其親,不使大臣怨乎不以;故舊無大故則不棄也;無求備於一人.

本章記周公魯公之言.崔述诛泗考信錄認為此章與本篇不倫,疑是後人續入.

周公(兒子)魯公:君子不遺棄他的親人,不使大臣怨恨不用他,舊親老友如沒有重大逆跡過咎,不要廢棄他們.不要對一個人身上去求全責備.

周公:周公旦; 魯公:周公之子,伯禽.受封於; :或作弛,鬆弛,疏遠,遺棄也; 大故:惡逆也; 求備:求全責備;

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,東壁,幼有奇才,乾隆間舉於鄉,嘉慶間歷知福建羅源,上杭諸縣,有廉聲.後乞歸,以著述終老.之學以考證為主.不墨守舊說.無從考證者輒以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚夥惟考信錄最有名.

The Duke of Zhou addressed his son the Duke of Lu:A virtuous prince does not discard his kinsmen.He would not cause his ministers to repine because of not being used.He would not dismiss any old ministers or friends unless he has good reasons.He does not demand people to be perfect in all respects.

18.11有八士:伯達,伯适,仲突,仲忽,叔夜,叔夏,季隨,季騧.

本章記周代八士.崔述在{論語篇章辨疑}以為此章亦係後人所續入者.

代有八位賢人:伯達,伯适,仲突,仲忽,叔夜,叔夏,季隨,季騧.

*周代八士身世不詳.

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,東壁,幼有奇才,乾隆間舉於鄉,嘉慶間歷知福建羅源,上杭諸縣,有廉聲.後乞歸,以著述終老.之學以考證為主.不墨守舊說.無從考證者輒以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚夥惟考信錄最有名.

There were eight intelligent scholars in Zhou: Boda,Boshi,Zhongtu;Zhonghu,Shuye,Shuxia,Jisui and Jigua.

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