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陽貨 第十七篇  

2011-08-09 15:08:40|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論語淺譯陽貨 第十七篇 共二十六章

陽貨 第十七篇 共二十六章

17.1陽貨欲見孔子,孔子不見,孔子.孔子時其亡也而往拜之,遇諸塗.孔子:!予與爾; …:懷其寶其邦,可謂仁乎? …:不可; …“好從事而亟失時,可謂知乎?” …:不可; … “日月逝矣!歲不我與;”…孔子:!吾將任矣!

本章記孔子不為權臣利用.言遠害也.

陽貨想會見孔子,孔子不見他.他送給孔子一隻熟乳豬,孔子趁他不在家中的時候去回禮.正巧在路上相遇了.陽貨孔子:!我跟你說; …陽貨:一個人懷藏着道德和學問而聽憑國家在迷亂,這可算是仁嗎? …孔子答道:這不可算是仁;…陽貨又問:喜歡想為政而屢次失去機會,這可算是智嗎? …孔子答道:這不可算是智; …陽貨:時光過得很快啊!歲月不饒人啊! …孔子:是的,我將會出來從政了.

明朝<<石刻聖跡圖:退修詩書>>:孔子四十二歲魯昭公去世,()晋定公(511),大夫季孫氏凌駕于國君之上.,而他的家臣(陽貨)又實際掌握了魯國的行政大權.孔子不滿此時此刻魯國的狀况.不愿出仕做官.潛心修訂[][][][],教授第子.孔子的學生越來越多了.

陽貨:,季桓子家臣,曾囚季桓子而專國之政; 欲見孔子:欲令孔子出任助己也(或疑陽貨,陽虎為二人,今不從); :饋贈; :蒸熟了的小豬; :等候,伺候; :外出(不在家中); :同途,路之中途也; 懷其實:喻道德才學; :qi粵讀冀,屢次,時常;

我與:(等待);

Yang Huo wanted Confucius to see him.But Confucius would not want to.

He sent Confucius a sucking pig as present.Confucius chose a time to visit him in which he knew Yang Huo was not at home to express his gratitude. However they were met on the middle of the road.Yang Huo said to Confucius:Come I have something to say to you.

Yang Huo then asked:Can he be called virtuous if he keeps his talentshidden  and leaves his country in disarray?

Confucius said: Of course not.

Yang Huo then asked:Can he be called wise if he was longing for a position in the government yet again and again he misses the opportunity to do so?

Confucius said: Of course not.

Yang Huo then said:My days and months are gone,the year would not wait for me!

Confucius said:Right! I will be soon join in.

17.2:性相近也,習相遠也.

本章言人性在先天相近,後天習染各別不同而遠

老師說:人的本性,在先天秉賦上原是很相近的.由於後天各人習染的不同,就相去很遠了.

:人之先天本性; :後天習染;

Confucius said:People are closely alike by nature.their custom(s) drift them far apart.

17.3:唯上知與下愚,不移.

本章言人之本性雖相近,但亦有上知和下愚之人.先天秉賦懸殊,非習染所可移易也.

老師說:只有上智和下愚的人,不是後天的習染和教育可以轉移的.

上知,下愚:孔安國(子國,孔子第十二世孫,漢武帝時期的諫議大夫,臨淮太守,):上知不可使為悪,下愚不可使為賢;

Confucius said:Only the wisest and the stupidest are unchangeable

N.B.this chapter is in conjunction with 17.2

17.4武城,聞弦歌之聲,夫子莞爾而笑曰:割雞焉用牛刀? …子游對曰:昔者也擧諸夫子[君子學道則愛人,小人學道則易使也]…子曰:二三子!之言是也,前言戲之耳.

本章記孔子子游能實行聖門教化之道.參閱6.12

老師往武城,聽到弦歌的聲音,夫子微笑着說:殺雞何需用上牛刀呢? …子游答道:以前我聽到老師說過[在上位的人學道,就懂得愛護人民.庶民們學道,就容易聽從教令];老師說:弟子們,(子游)講得對啊,我剛才說的是對他開玩笑而已矣.

:往也; 武城:,子游武城; 弦歌之聲:子游以禮樂教,故邑人皆以琴瑟弦歌也; 莞爾:微笑貌; 割雞焉用牛刀:此喻治小邑何必用禮樂大道; :子游之名;

子游: 511-?姓言名偃,字子游,吴国人..仕魯為武城宰.特習於禮,尤於文學著.列位孔門十哲(子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).

Confucius came to Wucheng,he heard the classic sound of strings and singings (the highest practice of the rite and music).With a gentle smile, Confucius humorously said:Why use an ox knife to kill a chicken?

Ziyou said:Master,Yan(Ziyou) remember you have once said, ‘A ruler who had learned the classic way of rite and music loves his people.The people who had  learned the classic way of rite and music are easy to rule’.

The master said:My disciples, Yan’s word is right! What I have said just now was only meant for joking.

17.5公山弗擾於費畔,,欲往.子路不說曰:末之也已!何必公山氏之之也!…:夫召我者,而豈徒哉?如有用我者,吾其為東周乎?

本章崔述{沫泗考信錄}疑為偽託.弗擾叛時,孔子正為司冦,故認此章所記之事可疑孔子雖新任魯司冦亦未必不去助平叛以復共東周荒禮禾,崔述之理亦有不確之處.

公山弗擾費邑叛變,派人來召,老師考慮想去.子路心中不悅:沒有可去之處了麽?又何必到公山氏那裡去呢?…老師說:旣有人召我,難道只是不做甚麽嗎?如有人用我,我將行周道於東方啊.

之之:; 公山弗擾:史記中名為公山不狃,季氏家臣,他曾與陽貨共謀反叛季氏,失敗後逃往國之後再潛回據費邑以叛; :同叛; 末之也已:言無有可去了; :,傳統bi,現在多讀fei

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,東壁,幼有奇才,乾隆間舉於鄉,嘉慶間歷知福建羅源,上杭諸縣,有廉聲.後乞歸,以著述終老.之學以考證為主.不墨守舊說.無從考證者輒以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚夥惟{考信錄}最有名.

When Gongshan Furao seized Bei for rebellion, he sent for Confucius to come.Confucius inclined to go.Zilu was not happy and said:If you have no better place to go, that is all right.Why must go to assist Gongshan?

The master said:He has sent for me.Can it be of nothing? If anyone were to use me,I believe I can advocate a ‘Zhou in the East’

17.6子張問仁於孔子,孔子:[能行五者於天下為仁矣]請問之; …:,,,,. 恭則不侮,寬則得眾,信則人任焉, 敏則有功,惠則足以使人.

本章記孔子指示子張為仁之五目.

子張問為仁之道.老師說:能表現出五種品德於天下,就可算仁了; …子張請問那五種品德.老師說:,,,,. 對人恭敬,就不會受到人的侮慢.待人寬厚,就可得到眾人之心,與人信實,就可得到人的信賴.做事勤快,就容易成功.能常施恩惠給人,人多願意為你効勞.

於天下:無往而不如此; :倚仗也;

Zizhang asked the master about the Perfect Virtue.

Confucius said:He who can put five things into practice everywhere under heaven would be a man of perfect virtue.Zizhang said:May I ask what are they?

Confucius said:Respectful,Generous,Honest,Fervent and Altruistic.

Respect prevents insults;Generosity wins everyone;Honesty gains trust; Fervency brings success; Altruism enjoys ample of reciprocity.

17.7佛肸(xi粵讀日),欲往.子路:昔者聞諸夫子曰[親於其身為不善者,君子不入也]彿肸中牟,子之往也,如之何? …:!有是言也,不曰堅乎?磨而不磷,不曰白乎?湼而不緇,吾豈匏瓜也哉?焉能繫而不食?

本章崔述{沬泗考信錄}亦以為偽託.[韓詩外傳],佛肸中牟,其事在哀公二十年.孔子已卒五年,以證此事之不實.然則[韓詩外傳]之載,未知有誤否.

佛肸派人來召,老師考慮想去,子路:以前我聽到老師說過[一個人本身做過不善之事的,君子不願到他那裡去],佛肸如今據着中牟叛變,老師去他

那裡,這為什麼呢?…老師說:是的,有這樣的話,不也說過怎樣才算是最堅硬的麼?儘磨他也不損不薄,不也說過怎樣才算是潔白的麼?儘染他也不會黑.我難道是匏瓜嗎?怎能老是掛着而不給人食呢?

佛肸:fu粵讀,xi粵讀日,字之本義笑聲也,戴表元{翫月詩}:洗林問勞苦,天女笑肸肸;佛肸大夫范中行的家臣,中牟縣宰.中牟亦為 趙簡子之邑;趙簡子進范氏,佛肸依據中牟來抵抗趙簡子.中牟趙簡子之邑,故稱他叛也:中牟以叛氏也;然有記孔子晉趙簡子卻半途折返衛國.明朝<<石刻聖跡圖:西河返駕>>,孔子衛國晉國,來到黄河邊時聽到竇鳴犢舜華死了.便對黄河嘆息道:“美啊!浩浩蕩蕩的河水,我不能過河到晉國是命啊!竇鳴犢,舜華晉國賢良的大夫,趙簡子未得志時候依靠這兩個人,後來執掌政權便把他們殺了,鳥獸還知道避開不義的行為,何況人呢?!”於是就返回去了.

磨而不磷:/薄也,義磨之而不損不薄也;湼而不緇:染之而不黑;nie湼粵讀聶;[矾石]一種黑色染料,zi緇粵讀支/黑色,這兩句比喻人之善性無可評論也;匏瓜:pao粵讀刨,胡蘆的一種,味苦,人所不食,剖開可做瓢盛食物,顏淵每餐只吃一箪一瓢; 中牟:國地名,故地在今河北 邢臺邯鄲之間;

子路: 子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,東壁,幼有奇才,乾隆間舉於鄉,嘉慶間歷知福建羅源,上杭諸縣,有廉聲.後乞歸,以著述終老.之學以考證為主.不墨守舊說.無從考證者輒以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚夥.考信錄最有名.

Bi Xi summoned the master. Confucius was inclined to go.Zilu said:I have heard master once said, ‘If a person is personally involved in some evil deeds,no righteous person would enter his area’. Since Bi Xi had seized Zhongniu in revolt.If you go to him.What does that mean?

Confucius said:True,I have said so.but is it not also said if a thing is really hard,no grinding can make it thin.Is itnot also said if is really white,,no steeping can make it black?! Am I just a bitter gourd? How can I be only fit for hanging and notfor consuming?

17.8:,聞六言六蔽矣乎?…對曰:未也; …“,吾語女.好仁不好學,蔽也愚;好知,蔽也蕩; 好信不好學,蔽也賊;好直不好學,蔽也絞;好勇不好學,蔽也亂;好剛不好學,蔽也狂;”

本章孔子子路六種只好而不學的弊病.

老師說:仲由!你聽說過六種品德也有六種弊病麼?…子路:沒有;…老師說:坐下!我告訴你,喜好仁德而不喜好學問,它的弊病是容易被人愚弄的;喜好聰明而不喜好學問,它的弊病是放蕩; 喜好誠實而不喜好學問,它的弊病是賊害了自己,喜好率直而不喜好學問,它的弊病是因說話尖刻而每每扭結不通; 喜好勇敢而不喜好學問,它的弊病是捣亂惹祸; 喜好剛強而不喜好學問,它的弊病是輕率狂妄.

:子路; :同汝(); :坐也; :告也; :放蕩不知歸結; :害也; :急切也; :違法犯上; :狂妄而抵觸別人;

子路:子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Confucius said:Zhong You(Zilu) have you heard of the six merits and their six respective demerits(for people who hate to learn)?

Zilu:No sir.

Confucius said:Stay,let me tell you.

Benevolent people hate learning make them imbecile

Wise people hate learning make them debauched.

Honest people hate learning make them vulnerable

Frank people hate learning trussed themselves up.

Fortitudinous people hate learning are arrogantly wild.

17.9 :小子!何莫學夫詩? ,可以興,可以觀,可以羣,可以怨; 邇之事父,遠之事君,多識於鳥獸草木之名.

本章告弟子學詩之益.

老師說:弟子們,何不去學詩呢? ,可以激發人的情志,可以考察政風的得失,可以在通達時和悅於羣眾,可以在否塞時舒發憤懣.近的,可以知道如何侍奉父母.遠的,可以知道如何事奉國君.還可多知道記取鳥獸草木的名稱.

:感發情志; :考察得失; :通詩可以合羣; :否塞可以舒懣; :近也; :記也.

Confucius said:My disciples,Why do you not study the Book of Poetry?The Odes can help you to stimulate the mind.to broaden the view for a better judgement. They can teach you the art sociability and let you know how to  demonstrate your chagrin.They may be used closely at home in the service of your parents;outside afar, in the service of your prince. Moreover, they will widen your acquaintance with the names of birds,beasts,plants and trees

17.10伯魚:女為周南召南矣乎?人而不為周南召南,其猶正牆面而立也與?

本章記孔子告兒言學詩可以使眼光遠大.

老師對伯魚:你學過詩中周南召南了麽? …一個人如不去學周南召南,他就像面對牆在站着的啊!(面前蔽塞,眼光不廣不遠)

:同汝(); :學也; 正牆面而立:言所見蔽塞不遠;

伯魚:孔子之子..伯魚.生時,魯昭公以鯉賜孔子,名與字皆緣於此.

[周南][召南]:詩經國風首一,二篇名,這兩篇寫的是周南召南兩地區江漢流域一帶的民歌;

Confucius asked his son Boyu:Have you studied  {Zhou Nan}and{Shao Nan}yet? A person who has not studied {Zhou Nan}and{Shao Nan} will be like though he is standing,but facing right in front of  a wall!

17.11:禮云禮云,玉帛云乎哉?樂云樂云,鐘鼓云乎哉?

本章言禮主敬,不在虛文.

老師說:禮麼禮麼,豈是說這些玉帛物品嗎? 樂麼樂麼,豈是說鐘鼓這些樂器嗎?

玉帛:玉帛屬之禮品;

Confucius said:Ritual!Ritual! Are jade and silk meant to be what Ritual is all about? Music!Music! Are bells and drums meant to be what Music is all about?

17.12:色厲而內荏,譬諸如小人,其猶穿窬之盗也與?

本章言小人表裏不一,欺世盜名.

老師說:外表很威嚴,內心實很懦弱的人,猶如那些小人,他好比穿鑿牆洞做小偷的不光明呢.

色厲:表面威嚴; 內荏:ren荏粤讀任,內實懦弱; 穿窬:yyu窬粵讀俞,鑿牆洞,鼠輩小偷之為也;

Confucius said:He who looks awesome but a scarecrow inside. Similar to a small man like a thief chisels a hole in the wall to crawl in to steal.

17.13:鄉原,德之賊也.

本章責鄉愿,為盜德之賊.參閱13.24

老師說:鄉愿(一鄉中任何人都不得罪的,不辨是非隨處討好人的老好人),這人是盗德之賊啊!

鄉原:謂鄉人之貌為謹愿者(原與愿).鄉愿者,一鄉皆稱善,而其忠信廉潔,皆是假託.{中論考正偽}:鄉愿亦無殺人之罪也,仲尼深悪之.參閱13.24

Confucius said:Xiang Yuan The meticulously obsequious villager,(who is being fond of by every single person in the village),damages the spirit of virtue.

 

17.14:道聽而塗說,德之棄也.

本章言不辨真偽,人云亦云者,缼德也.

老師說:在街頭聽到了,就在路上說出去,人云亦云,漫無是非,這是道德中所該拋棄的.

道聽塗說:把在街頭聽到(從网上看到的流言蜚語)說出去,不在乎其真假,但求譁眾取寵.

Confucius said:To spread what you have heard on the way,is to abandon virtue.

17.15:鄙夫可與事君也與哉?其未得之也,患得之;旣得之,患失之;苟患失之,無所不至矣.

本章言鄙夫患得患失,必無忠君愛國之心.

老師說:一個卑鄙小人,可和他共同事君嗎? 在沒得到富貴時,憂慮着如何能得到.旣然得到了,又憂慮着唯恐失掉.若是憂慮怕失掉,那麽什麽事都做得出來了啊!

鄙夫:庸俗無行之人; 無所不至:言人欲富貴,則無所不為;

Confucius said: How can one serve the prince together with those despicable characters? When they have not got it(fame and fortune)yet,they worry how to get it. When they have got it, they worry again of losing it.In their worrisome duration of minding it,they will act unscuprously to secure it.

17.16:古者民有三疾;,今也或是之亡也.古之狂也肆,今之狂也蕩.古之矜也廉,今之矜也忿戾;古之愚也直,今之愚也詐而已矣.

本章言古人雖有偏短之病,今人猶不如古人也.

老師說:古時人有三種缺點,如今的人或者這缺點已沒有了:古人狂而不拘小節,今人狂而放蕩越禮了; 古人矜莊而廉隅不苟取,今人矜莊過分變成蠻橫無禮;古人愚昧之中還保持正直.今人愚昧反而變成奸詐妄為了.

三疾:三種偏短之病:,,; 狂諢肆:志大而不拘小節; 忿戾:易怒好爭; :原指器物的稜角,這裡是厲害的意思

Confucius said:Those three kinds of common defects for the people in the olden days,perhaps are now extinct.

The wildness of the olden days was the unrestraint.The wildness of nowadays is its dissipation of virtue.

The pride of the olden days constituted a concept of conceited  inactivity, The pride of nowadays is a sense of actin  Contentiously cantankerous.

The foolishness of the olden days was its bluntness.The foolishness of nowadays is its feint.

17.17:巧言令色,鮮矣仁!

本章言佞人不仁. 此章重出,首列學而篇1.3

老師說:說討好話,裝出討喜歡的臉色,這種人的仁德是很少的.

巧言:花言巧語; 令色:裝出討喜歡的臉色;

Confucius said:Flattery and obsequious manner are scarce of virtue.

17.18:悪紫之奪朱也;悪鄭聲之亂雅樂也;悪利口之覆邦家者.

本章言以邪亂正也.

老師說:我可惡那些紫色侵奪了紅的正色,可惡那鄭聲淆亂了正樂,可惡那張利口顛覆了邦家的人.

:紅而兼黑者; :紅之正色; 鄭聲:邪淫之樂; 利口:有口才無是非;

Confucius said:I hate to see purple deprived red of its postion and replace its luster.I hate to hear the singings of Zheng corrupting the Classic Music of the court.I hate those glib tongue sycophannt ruin a kingdom.

17.19:予欲無;…子貢:子如不言,則小子何述焉? …子曰:天何言哉?四時行焉,百物生焉,天何言哉?

本章言天理自然流行,不言而著,貴在自悟.

老師說:不想再說什麼了[人不可徒於言語上求道,須知道在默悟];…子貢:老師如不說,那第子們拿什麽來傳述呢?……老師說:天說了些什麼?四時不斷地自然流行,百物自然地生長, 天說了些什麼?

:傳述也;

Confucius said:I wish to relate no more.

Zigong asked:If master relate no more, how may the disciple record your discourse?

The master said:When does heaven relate?four seasons are progressing orderly.All things are yielding continuously.What has heaven related indeed?!

17.20孺悲欲見孔子,孔子辭以疾.將命者出户,取瑟而歌,使之聞之.

本章記孔子不欲見孺悲,崔述{洙泗考信錄}又說此章可疑,論其事如同兒戲,又謂聖人不該如此,所以認為是傳人之誤也.相反也有疏曰此章蓋孔子疾惡也.

孺悲要求會見孔子.孔子以病推辭,傳達這話的人出房門,孔子就取出瑟來歌唱.使孺悲聽到.(知孔子的心意,不再求見了)

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,東壁,幼有奇才,乾隆間舉於鄉,嘉慶間歷知福建羅源,上杭諸縣,有廉聲.後乞歸,以著述終老.之學以考證為主.不墨守舊說.無從考證者輒以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚夥.考信錄最有名.

孺悲:,嘗學士喪禮於孔子;

將命者:傳達話的人;

Ru Bei wanted to see the master.

Confucius declined his request under the pretext of illness.When the servant was leaving the door to deliver the message,Confucius took out his Zither and sang with it deliberately to allow his servant to hear him.

17.21 宰我:三年之喪,期已久矣! 君子三年不為禮,禮必壞;三年不為樂,樂必崩.舊穀旣沒,新穀旣升,鑽燧改火,期可已矣; …:食夫稻,衣夫錦,於女安乎?…:!…女安則為之!夫君子之居喪,食旨不甘,聞樂不樂,居處不安,故不為也.今女安,則為之! …宰我,:予之不仁也!子生三年,然後免於父母之懷,三年之喪,天下之通喪也.予也有三年之愛於其父母乎?

本章論不可改短守三年父母之喪.

宰我:為父母守喪三年,一年已經很久了!君子三年不習禮,禮就要敗壞,三年不習樂,樂就要衰废.像陳穀已吃完,新穀已經登場.鑽木取火已改換木頭,守喪一年,也就可以終止了; …老師說:居在喪中吃好米飯,穿着錦繡衣服,你能安心嗎? …宰我:安心! …老師說:你能安心,你就做吧!一般君子守喪,吃着美味的東西,不覺得好吃,聽着音樂,也不感到快樂,日常起居,心裡總覺得不安.所以不願這樣做.在你認為心安,那你就做好了! …宰我退出以後,老師說:宰我真是個沒有仁心的人啊.兒女出生三年,然後才能離開父母的懷抱,這三年的喪禮,是天下通行的喪禮.!曾有過三年的愛心對已死去的父母過嗎?

:周年也; :敗壞也; :墜失; 沒盡也; :新穀登塲也; 鑽燧改火:古人鑽木取火,隨四時改易; :美味也; :離也;

宰我:,子我,也稱宰我,國人.宰予口齒伶俐,能說善辯,被列為孔門四科十哲(言語科)之一.孔子常派遣他出使各國,使于齊”,“使于楚.宰予遇事有自己的主見.

Zai Wu queried:Three-year-mourning,duration is too long.If people suspend their practice of propriety for three years the propriety will corrupt.If they stop playing music for three years, the music(bells and drums) will crack. Now old grain already vanished,the new grain has sprung up,even the drilling woods for starting fires are adjusted.Surely that is happening all but in one year.

Confucius said:Eating good rice, wearing silk brocades, Would you feel comfortable in it?

Zai Wo said:Yes,I am comfortable of that

The master said:If you are comfortable,do it then.

But a superior man when in mourning,doest not enjoy pleasant food,he can not find pleasure from music.Even when he is at ease  staying at home, he does not feel comfortable.That is why he chose to abandon these things.But now since you are comfortable,you may do it.

Zai Wo left,Confucius said:What a man of no heart! A child born three years,hence leave the arms of parent.The three years mourning is accepted anywhere beneath heaven.I wonder if Yu (Zai Wo)would have a heart for his deceased parents lasting three years long?!

17.22 :飽食終日,無所用心,難矣哉!不有博弈者乎?為之,猶賢乎已!

本章言人之終日無所用心極為不可.,需有所用也.

老師說:吃飽了飯,自早至晚,沒有一件事肯去用心,真是難有成德可能了!不是有着局戲和圍棋的麼?如能在這些上用點心,也比較好些啊!

:擲骰子局戲; :圍棋也;:勝也;

Confucius said:Satiated for the whole day,with an idle mind all the time,appalling indeed!Have there not some games of dice and chess? Playing that is even better.

17.23 子路:君子尚勇乎? …:君子義以為上.君子有勇而無義為亂.小人有勇而無義為盗.

本章言君子尚義,君子有勇必有義也.

子路問道:君子重視勇嗎?…老師說:君子以義為最重要,君子有勇而無義就變為亂,小人有勇而無義就變為盜了.

尚義:以義為上也;

子路: 子路一字季路,,孔子弟子,孔子九歲, (孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).性鄙而好勇.事親孝.大夫孔悝(kui悝粵),以為邑宰,出公在位,孔悝伯姬豎良夫謀立太子蒯瞶(kuai;gui瞶粵,瞶本字義眼昏如瞎,例句如聾如瞶)孔悝蒯瞶盟而劫出公.出公.子路,蒯瞶,請殺孔悝,此謂孔悝之難,子路遂被害.

Zilu asked:Do superior men have great esteem for boldness?

Confucius said:A superior man esteems righteousness the greatest.In the absence of righteousness,He would be although brave but bewildered. Whereas a mean but brave person because in lack of righteousness,is a robber without question.

17.24子貢:君子亦有悪乎? …:有悪.悪稱人之悪者,悪居下流而訕上者,悪勇而無禮者,悪果敢而窒者; …:賜也亦有悪乎? …悪徼以為知者,惡不孫以為勇者,悪訐以為直者.

本章記孔子所悪的是真小人,子貢所悪的是偽君子.

子貢:君子也有厭悪的人麼? …師說:有厭悪的.厭悪說別人壞話的人,厭悪在下位毁謗在他上位的人,厭悪有勇氣而不合乎禮的人.厭悪有果敢精神而不通事理的人; …老師反問道:賜啊!你也有厭悪的人麼? …子貢:我厭惡暗地裡抄襲人而自以為智的人.厭惡不謙遜而自以為勇敢的人,厭惡揭發別人的私隱而自以為正直的人.

居下流:指居下位的;:毀謗也; :不通事理; :抄襲也; :攻發人之隱私;

子貢:端木賜衛國人.(貢本作贛),孔子弟子,孔子31,(孔子十哲之一:子淵,子騫,伯牛,仲弓,子有,子貢,子路,子我,子游,子夏).子貢有口才,能料事,善科殖,家累千金.相衛,.嘗說吳出師敵齊以存魯.聘享諸侯.所至之國,其國君無不與之分庭抗禮.卒於.

Zigong asked:Is there hatred in the heart of a superior man?

Confucius said: There are hatreds in him.He hates calnumniators who spread evils on others.He hates those inferiors who like to slander their superiors,he hates those who are bluntly bold but ignorant with the rules of propriety,he hates those who are consistent but obstinate.Ci(Zigong),do you also have hatreds?

Zigong replied:I hate plagiarizers who are claiming to be intelligent,I hate those who claim to be brave because of not acting humble themselves,I hate those who like to expose and criticize peoples’ faults to suggest that they are righteous themselves.

17.25:唯女子與小人為難養也.近之則不遜,遠之則怨.

本章言家中的婢和僕,不易對待他們.

師說:只有家中的婢僕難以對待了.親近一點就會對你不謙遜起來.疏遠一些,就會對你怨恨起來.

女子與小人:指家中的婢女和僕人;

Confucius said:I am afraid only maids and male-servants (domestic helpers) are difficult to be acquainted with.Staying too close, you will lose their respects on you. Staying too far, they will have chagrin on you.

17.26:年四十而見悪焉,其終也已.

本章勉人當及時修德也.

師說:活到四十歲還被人憎悪,他這一生就沒希望了.

Confucius said:He who has reached his forty and still being dislike by others,he will be disliked by for the rest of his life.
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