注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

gammaducksr的博客

 
 
 

日志

 
 

季氏 第十六篇  

2011-08-09 16:11:43|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

加碼德筆記【論語淺譯季氏 第十六篇 共十四章

 

季氏 第十六篇 共十四章

16.1 季氏將伐顓臾.冉有,季路,見於孔子:季氏將有事於顓臾; …孔子曰:!無乃爾是過與?顓臾,昔者先王以為東蒙主,且在邦域之中矣,是社稷之臣也,何以伐為? …冉有曰:夫子欲之,吾二臣者,皆不欲也; …孔子曰:!周任有言曰[陳力就列,不能者止]危而不持,顛而不扶,則將焉用彼相矣?且爾言過矣!虎兕出於柙,龜玉毀於櫝中,是誰之過與? …冉有:今夫顓臾固而近於費,今不取,後世必為子孫憂; …孔子:!君子疾夫舍曰欲之而必為之辭.也聞有國有家者,不患寡而患不均,不患貧而患不安; 蓋均無貧,和無寡,安無傾.夫如是,故遠人不服,則脩文德以來之;旣來之,則安之.也相夫子.遠人不服而不能來也,邦分崩離析而不能守也.而謀動干戈於邦內,吾恐季孫之憂,不在顓臾而在蕭牆之內也.

本章三百三十二字,孔子,訓弟子.後期孔夫子冉有孔門參閱11.15;…旣來之,則安之典故出自此章也!

季氏將攻伐顓臾.冉有子路來見孔子,冉有:季氏將要出兵攻打顓臾;…老師說:!未免就是你的過啦? 顓臾,是先王封東蒙的主祭者,而且國境以內,是國家的屬臣,為什麽要攻伐他呢? …冉有:這是季孫的意思,我們兩個家臣都不想這樣做啊! …老師說:! 周任以前說過,“貢獻你的力量,參與百官的行列,若不勝任,就該辭退”,如助弱視者,如臨着危險不去扶持,快要跌倒不去抱住,那何必用這[]做什麼呢?(字形義以木與助目也);況且你說錯了!好比老虎和野牛從棚欄裡跑掉,龜和玉在匣子裡壞掉了,這不是管理人的失職,還有誰的過失嗎? …冉有說:如今的顓臾,城郭堅固,又近在季氏,現在不攻取他,將留給後代子孫之憂;…老師說:!君子所厭惡的是私心裡想要,表面還藉口掩飾他.我聽人講過,一個諸侯之國,或者卿大夫之家,不愁民戶少,只愁財富怕不平均.不愁人民窮,只愁大家不能相安.因為財富平均,就沒有貧窮.大家和諧就不覺民戶少.大家相安就不怕國家傾覆.做到這樣,如果遠方的不歸附,就整頓禮樂文教以招徠他們.旣來到我們國家以內,就要好好地安置他們.如今,輔助季氏大夫,遠方人不歸附,你們也不設法招徕他們,邦家要分離瓦解,你們也不能好好地把守着,反而想在邦家之內動起干戈來,我怕季孫的憂慮不在顓臾,而在自家的屏風之內吧!

顓臾:國之附庸國,在今山東費縣西; 有亊:有攻伐之事; 東蒙:蒙山,在今山東 蒙陰縣; 社稷之臣:國家之屬臣; 夫子:季康子; 周任:古代著名史官; 陳力就列:貢献出力量擔任職務; :古時扶助瞽者之人稱[],這裡指助手; 虎兕出于柙:si兕粤讀,雌犀牛也,xia柙粤讀,囚獸籠; :du櫝粤讀,大櫃也; : bi費粤讀庇,季氏之封邑; 不患而患不均,不患而患不安:此兩句[][]掉換,則較宜為接下文; 舍曰欲之:實是私心欲之而藉詞掩飾; 干戈:戰事;蕭牆之內:蕭牆,大門內的屏風,之內,季孫之家事也;

The chief of the Ji clan was planning to invade Zhuanyu. Ran You and Zilu came to see Confucius to inform him:the head of the Ji family will find disputes with Zhuanyu.

The master said:Qiu(Ran You)is it not you who are taking part in the intrigue? Zhuanyu was long ago appointed by the former king to preside over the sacrifices to the mount Dongmeng .Moreover it lies within the boundary of our state,and it is a satellite city of ours who is also one of a state ministers.Why are you going to invade them?

Ran You said:The Ji clan  wishes so; neither of us two ministers wants to do it.

The master said:Qiu(Ran You)there are the words of Zhou Ren,he who can put forth his ability takes his place in the ranks of office;he who cannot must then retires from it.One  who sees him in danger,but does not save  him, sees him falling ,but does not  prop him up? What else is helpful can we expect from such a assistant..Moreover your excuse is not genuine.When a tiger or a buffalo escapes from its cage,when a tortoise shell or jade is broken in its box,whose fault is it?(connotation:watchers’keepers’fault,not owners’)

Ran You said:Now Zuanyu is strongly fortified and is close to Bei(Ji clns' territory),if it is not taken today, in days to come it will certainly bring trouble to our sons and grandsons.

Confucius said:Qiu(Ran You)a superior man hates those who hide their desires of greed and make excuses to rationalize it’. Qiu(Confucius ) have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of clans are not trouble that should their people become fewer,but troubled if there is disparity among them;they are not troubled about poverty,but are troubled if the people not living at ease;if all are well apportioned, there will be no poverty; if they are in harmony, there will be no decline in population;if stability reigns, there will be no danger of collapse. If all these are done, and yet the people of far off lands still do not submit,then the ruler should attract them by encouraging ritual and music.If already they have come to reside,just let them live at ease.

Now,here are you two,You(Zilu)and Qiu(Ran you),both assisting your chief of Ji , the people of far lands do not submit to him, and he cannot attract them to come.In his own state there are divisions and tottery,disruption and cleft,but he cannot save it. And yet he is planning to use military forces within the border of his own land.I am afraid that the troubles of the Ji family will not rise in Zuanyu,they will rise within the walls of his own court yard.      

16.2孔子:天下有道,則禮樂征伐自天子出.天下無道, 則禮樂征伐自諸侯出, 自諸侯出.蓋十世希不失矣.自大夫出,五世希不失矣;陪臣執國命,三世希不失矣.天下有道,則政不在大夫.天下有道,則庶人不議.

本章言國家的權勢控之所在,可定它的存亡.

老師說:天下有道時,一切禮樂征伐的事,都從天子那裡決定,天下無道時, 禮樂征伐的事,就在諸侯身上決定發出.那麼這樣的天下傳十代後很少會不亡的了,如果從大夫發出(号令),這樣的國家傳五代後很少會不亡的,如果大夫家臣把持号令, 國家傳三代後很少會不亡的了.天下有道時,政權不會落在大夫手.天下有道時,人民不會去議論政治的.

禮樂征伐自天子出:古時非天子不得變禮樂,專征伐; 希少也; 陪臣:家臣也; 政不在大夫:大夫不可以專政; 庶人不議:人民不去私議政治的好;

Confucius said:If the world were in order, ceremonies of rite and music,as well as military affairs would be controlled by the the Son of Heaven(anthropomorphism:Emperor). If the world were out of order, ceremonies of rite and music,as well as military affairs would be  controlled by various vassals.

If orders were under the control of vassals, the dynasty could hardly last for ten generations. If the orders were under the control of state ministers, the dynasty could hardly last longer than five generations.If the fate of the dynasty were control by the retainers of the state minister, the dynasty could hardly last longer than three generations.

When the world is in proper order, power will not lie with the state ministers.

When the world is in propler order, common people will not discuss politics.

16.3孔子:祿之去公室五世矣!政逮於大夫四世矣!故夫三桓之子孫微矣!

本章言公室微弱,政在大夫手.

老師說:乏爵祿賞罸不從君出,已有五世了.政令落在大夫手裡,已有四代了.所以三桓的子孫,目前也衰微了.

祿之去公室:爵祿賞罸之權不在國君之手; 五世:指魯室,,,,五公, 四世:季孫文子,武子,平子,桓子四代; 三桓:仲孫,叔孫,季孫三家皆岀自魯桓公; 三家至定公時皆衰.

Confucius said:The royal privilege has had left the ducal ducal house of Lu for five generations already.The government has been in the hands of the ministers for four generations already.hence a debilitating development for the descendants of the three Huan()Ji clan).

16.4 孔子:益者三友,損者三友; [友直,友諒,友多聞,益矣;友便辟,友善柔,友便佞,損矣.]

本章言人當擇友而交.

老師說:有益的朋友有三種,有害的朋友也有三種.正直的人,信實的人,博學多聞的人,和他們交往都有益的.慣於逢迎不誠的人,於獻媚不信實的人,口才善辯,顛倒是非的人,和他們交往是有的了.

:正直; :誠信; 便辟:善於花言巧語; 善柔:善於獻媚討好; 便佞;於諂辯顛倒是非sophistry;

Confucius said:Wholesome friends there are three,harmful friends, there arethree.

Straight forward,honest,erudite.these are beneficial friends.

Specious talker,insinuating,obsequious,these are harmful friends.

16.5 孔子:益者三*,者三*;*樂節禮樂,*樂道人之善,*樂多賢友,益矣;*樂驕樂,*樂佚遊,*樂宴樂,損矣.

本章論人心愛好之益與損.

老師說:有益於人的三種喜好, 有損害於人的三種喜好:愛好節制禮樂,愛好称道別人的善處,愛好多交賢友,這就有益了; 愛好奢侈驕縱為樂,愛好閒散遊蕩,愛好宴會荒淫, 這就有害了.

*:yao讀肴音调6-,愛好; 節禮樂:調節適度,不失中和的禮樂; 驕樂:以奢侈驕縱為樂; 佚遊:閒散遊蕩沒有節制; 宴樂:沈溺於過度宴會之樂;

Confucius said:There are three sorts of advantageous pleasure,three sorts of harmful pleasure.

The pleasure of being adjusted by the rite and music,the pleasure of praising the credits of others and the pleasure of making lots of worthy friends.These are beneficial pleasures.

Pleasure of extravagant vainglory,pleasure of idle gadding, the pleasure of Epicureanism,these are harmful pleasures

16.6孔子:侍於君子有三愆:言未及之,謂之躁;言及之而不,謂之隱,未見顏色,謂之瞽.

本章言人當適時言也.

老師說:奉侍君子時容易犯的三種過失,說話沒輪到他就搶着先說,這就叫做輕躁,該他說的時候不他不說,這就叫做隱匿,不看清對方的面色而輕率的發言,這等於瞎了眼睛.

:qian讀牵,過失;:zao讀醋,性急也;:gu讀鼓,瞎人;

Confucius said:There are three common mistakes when talking to a superior man.To speak before your turn. This is rashness.You should have talked and yet you did not speak, this is concealing,you speak but fail to observe his countenance, this is called blindness.

16.7孔子:君子有三戒:少之時,血氣未定,戒之在色;及其壯也,血氣方剛,戒之在鬪;及其老也,血氣旣衰,戒之在得.

本章言君子自少至老所應戒慎之事.

老師說:君子有三種應戒慎的事:年少時血氣沒定,應戒慎在色慾上,到年壯時,血氣正當剛強,應戒慎在爭鬥上,到血氣已經衰退,應戒慎在貪得上.

血氣:言人之精力志氣; :女色;

Confucius said:superior man has three precautions.

At adolescent period,as both physical and mental strength is not yet settled, watch out for lust.Reaching the meridian stage while energy is at the vigorous condition, watch out for contentious incidents.Old age finally,mind and body at a feeble stage, watch out for the desire to achieve.

16.8孔子:君子有三畏:畏天命,畏大人,畏聖人之言. 小人不知天命而不畏也,狎大人,侮聖人之.

本章言君子與小人敬慢不同.

老師說:君子有三種敬畏:敬畏天命,敬畏君上,敬畏聖人的話; 小人不知甚麼是天命所以無所敬畏了,輕忽君上,戲慢聖人的話.

:敬畏也;天命:天地間自然之正理,其不可變易若命令然也; 大人:君上居高位者; :親暱怠忽; :輕慢之義;

Confucius said:A superior man has three fears.He fears the will of heaven. He fears the big ruler. He fears those words of sages.So the people who do not know the will of heaven have no fear for it.Those do not fear the ruler do not respect him,they would even insult the words of the sages.

16.9孔子:生而知之者,上也;學而知之者,次也;困而學知之,又其次也,困而不學,民斯為下矣.

本章言人之氣質不同,秉賦各異,儆勉困而不學之人.

老師說:天生能领悟道理的人,那是上等資質的人, 經後天學習而知道的是次一等的人,受到困頓方知要學的是再次一等的人,受到困頓仍不想學的是最下等的了.

生而知之:天賦強記億力及求知慾強的人; :困頓不通;

Confucius said:Best are those who are born with knowledge.Next are those who possess knowledge by learning.Then come the the next group who only start to learn when they were puzzled.As to those who do not learn even when they feel puzzled , they are lowest of the people. 

16.10孔子:君子有九思:視思明,聽思聰,色思温,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思,忿思難,見得思義.

本章言君子對言行視聽皆隨時九思省察是否合乎禮義.

老師說:君子對自己有九種省察之道:看要明白,聽要清楚,面色要溫和,態度要謙恭,說話要忠實,做事要認真,疑惑要查究詢,忿怒要想到事後的祸患,遇到有利可得,要顧及是否合理應得.

九思:九種省察; :認識清楚,而無所蔽; :清晰無所含混; :面色温和; :患難,後患; 見得:遇到利益所得.

Confucius said:A superior man has nine reminders.

Remind Seeing has to be clear,hearing has to be astute,countenance has to be benignant,manner has to be respectful,words have to be sincere,working has to be diligent,doubts must have explanations, anger must be reminded of its consequences,when he sees profit,he is reminded of righteousness.

16.11孔子:見善如不及,見不善如探湯,吾見其人矣,吾聞其語矣.隱居以求其志,行義以達其道,吾聞其語矣,未見其人也.

本章言善人不易見也.

老師說: [看到好的事情,就惟恐趕不上似的.看到不好的事情,就像手探到熱湯水的趕快避開] 我看到過這種人,也聽過這種話.[隠居起來以求全自己的向道的心志,入世行義以求推行大道之德]我聽到過這種話,但沒有看見過這種人!

如不及:如不及别人之善行也; 如探湯:如手伸進沸水;

Confucius said:when seeing something good,pursue hurrily as if not catching up.when seeing evil deeds,quickly shun from it as if putting hands in a boiling water.I have seen such people. I have heard words about them.By dwelling in seclusion they seek the fulfillment of their ambitions.by practicing righteousness they carry out their principles.I have heard these words about them,but I have not seen such men.

16.12 {不以富,亦祇以異.}齊景公有馬千駟,死之日,民無德而稱焉.伯夷 叔齊,餓於首陽之下,民到于今稱之.其斯之謂與?

本章言人不貴其富,而貴其德也.此章首二句乃程子[詩經]句子顏淵崇德辨惑章末之二句{不以富,亦祇以異.}參阅12.10

[詩經上說]贊揚別人實不因為富有,只因他的德行異於常人; …齊景公有馬一千駟,到他死時,人民對他沒有什麼可稱道的. 伯夷 叔齊窮極餓死在首陽山,人民直到如今還稱贊他.就是這樣的說法吧?

首陽:山名;

伯夷 叔齊:二位殷商民助後退隱,拒食粟而餓死首陽山.

Eminency is not valued by its wealth.It is valued by its unique achievement.

Duke Jing of Qi had a thousand chariots of four-steeds each.But on the day of his death,people could think of not a single matter to praise his virtue for.

Boyi and Shuqi died of hungar at the foot of Shouyang mountain,yet the people praise them down to this very day.Is not the saying illustrated by this?

16.13陳亢伯魚:子亦有異聞乎? …對曰:未也,嘗獨立,趨而過庭,:學詩乎?…對曰:未也; …“不學詩,無以退而學詩.他日又獨立,趨而過庭,:學禮乎? …對曰:未也; “不學禮,以立退而學禮. …聞斯二者;…陳亢退而喜曰:一得三:聞詩,聞禮,又聞君子之遠其子也.

本章記孔子教人,本無偏私.

陳亢問於伯魚:你有沒有聽到特別的秘傳呢? …答道:沒有啊.父親有一次單獨站在那裡,我趕快跑過庭間(意若頑童閃避父親視綫),父親問:讀詩了沒有? …我說:沒有; …父親說:不學詩,不懂怎樣說話; 於是我退回學詩去了;…另外有一天,父親又是單獨一人站在那裡,我趕快跑到他庭前,父親:學禮了沒有? …我說:沒有; …父親說:不學禮,不能立身處事; …於是我退下學禮去了; 父親单獨對我說的,就只有這兩項; …陳亢退下很高興地說:問了一項,而得到三項.聽到應該學詩,聽到應該學禮,又聽到君子對他的兒子也無偏私的秘傳.

陳亢:511-430子元,一字子禽,又名原亢,小孔子40. (安徽蒙城縣).大夫陳子車.孔子弟子,77位弟子中名列第68.曾做過單父(山東單縣南)宰.陳亢為宰時,施德政於民,頗受後人好評.其兄死,反對家人殉葬.

伯魚:孔子之子..伯魚.生時,魯昭公以鯉賜孔子,名與字皆緣於此.

:異乎弟子們之所異,即秘傳之意;

嘗獨立:曾經獨自一人立着,左右無人在場;

趨而過庭:趕快地跑過庭間;

遠其子:對自己的兒子亦無偏私獨厚也;

Cheng Kang asked Boyu(son of confucius):Have you heard any lessons different from what we have heard?

Boyu replied: No,once my father was standing alone in the court yard, I walked past him hurrily,and he asked me: Have you learned poems?

I answered no and he said:If you do not study poems,you will have no words to say.So I went back to study poems.Another day my father was again standing alone and as I ran across the court yard,he asked me:Have you studied the rules of propriety?

I answered no and my father said:If you do not study the rules of propriety,there is no place for you to stand.

I went back to study the rules of propriety.These were the two things I heard from my father.

Cheng Kang went away delightfully saying:I asked one thing ,but got three things.I have heard about poems, I have heard about the rules of propriety and I have also heard the superior man keeps his son at a distance.

16.14 邦君之妻,君稱之曰[夫人],夫人自稱曰[小童],邦人稱之曰[君夫人],稱諸異邦曰[寡小君],異邦人稱之亦曰[君夫人.]

本章說君夫人之稱謂.崔述東壁(1740-1816)[沫泗考信錄]疑本章為後人羼入{論語},恐是錯簡.

國君之妻,君稱她為[夫人],她自稱為[小童],國人稱她為[君夫人],對他國自稱本國國君之妻為[寡小君],他國人稱他國的國君之妻,也稱她為[君夫人]

:chan粵讀粲,義讒雜.

崔述:1740-1816大名,武承,東壁,幼有奇才,乾隆間舉於鄉,嘉慶間歷知福建羅源,上杭諸縣,有廉聲.後乞歸,以著述終老.之學以考證為主.不墨守舊說.無從考證者輒以不知置之,不敢妄言以惑世.著甚夥.考信錄最有名.

The wife of a prince of a state is called by the prince Madam.The wife  would call herself Junior-child.The people of the state would call her Prince-madam,however they will call other states’ as Unique Junior Prince.

Other states people would also call Prince madam.

N.B.some scholars suggested that this chapter is irrelevant to the analects of Confucius.
  评论这张
 
阅读(83)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017