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2013-12-05 17:26:27|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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加碼德筆記【論中國第七章危機四起的十年大躍進()

The Great Leap Forward 1958大躍進

Chinas leaders had felt obliged by Khrushchev's Secret Speech to confront the issue of what, absent claims to a Party Chairman's godlike infallibility, constituted Communist political legitimacy. In the monthsfollowing the February 1956 speech, they seemed to feel their way toward making their own governance more transparent, presumably to avoid the need for periodic shocks of rectification. Worshipful references to Mao Zedong were deleted from the Communist Party constitution. The Party adopted resolutions cautioning against "rash
advance
,,in the economic field and suggesting that the main phase of"class struggle" would now draw to a close.19562月赫魯夫作秘密報告之後中國領導層不得不開始正視黨內的個人崇拜問題。秘密報告出臺後的幾個月,他們似乎一直謹慎行事,加自身領導工作的透明度,大概是為了避免通過一次次震撼人心的政治運動來撥亂反正。共產黨黨章删刪去了對毛澤東的個人崇拜之詞。黨中央還通過決議告誡在經濟領域中不得冒進暗示階級鬥爭的主要阶階段將告一段落.Butsuch a prosaic approach quickly clashed with Mao's vision of continuous revolution.Within months Mao proposed an alternative route to political rectification: the Chinese Communist Party would invite debate and criticism of its methods and open up China's intellectual and artistic life to let "one hundred flowers bloom and one hundred schools of thought contend. Maos exact motivein issuing this call remain a subject of debate. The Hundred Flowers Campaign has been explained as either a sincere call for the Party to cut through its bureaucratic isolation to hear directly from the people or a stratagem to coax enemies into identifying themselves.然而不久後毛澤東就提出了另一條道路中國共產黨應主動發起鳴放”,歡迎批評意見開放中國的學術和藝術生活百花齊放百家爭鳴。毛澤東究竟提出這個口號,人們至今仍爭論不休。有人說百花齊放運動可能是真心誠意地要共產黨摒棄官僚作風,直接聽取人民的呼聲;也可能只是一種策略,的是引誘敵對分子暴露自己。Whatever the motive,popular criticism quickly moved beyond suggestions for tactical adjustments into criticisms of the Communist system.不管動機如何,民眾的意見很快就從調整方針政策的建議轉對共產黨制度的批評。Students set up a "democracy wall in Beijing. Critics protested the abuses or local officials and the privations imposed by Soviet-style economic policies; some contrasted the first decade of Communist rule unfavorably with the Nationalist era that preceded it. Whatever the original intention, Mao never brooked a challenge to his authority for long. He executed a sharp about-face and justified it as an aspect of his dialectic approach. The Hundred flowers movement was transformed into an"Anti-Rightist Campaignto deal with those who had misunderstood the limits of the earlier invitation to debate. A massive purge led to the imprisonment,reeducation, or internal exile of thousands of intellectuals. At the end of the process, Mao stood again as Chinas unchallenged leader, having cleared the field of his critics. He used his preeminence to accelerate the continuous revo?lution, turning it into the Great Leap Forward.北京學生立起了大字報墻”;批評者控訴地方幹部濫用權,并抗議蘇聯式的經濟政策造成了物資匱乏還有人說共產黨領導的10年還不如此前的國民黨時代。不管毛澤東的初衷如何,他從不容許別人長期挑戰他的權.他突然來了個大轉彎,搬出了辯證法的另一面。百花齊放一轉身變為反右運動,以對付那些誤解了爭鳴範圍的人。這是一場大規模的清算,成千上萬的知識份子或鋃鐺入獄或接受再教育,或流放外地。最後,在掃清了所有批評者之後,毛澤東又以無人挑戰的領袖身份傲然挺立,利用他的优勢地位加快了繼續革命的步伐,發動了大躍進運動

 

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