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道德經章30-39中英淺譯  

2015-11-13 19:56:00|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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道德經章30-39中英淺譯

 

30養氣章第三十Proper Cultivation

以道佐人主者,不以兵強天下。He who knows how to guide a ruler in the path of Tao Does not try to override the world with force of arms.其事好還。It is in the nature of a military weapon to turn against its wielder.師之所處,荊棘生焉。Wherever armies are stationed, thorny bushes grow.大軍之後,必有凶年。After a great warr, bad years invariably follow.善有果而已,What you want is to protect efficiently your own state不敢以取強But not to aim at self-aggrandisement.。果而勿矜,After you have attained your purpose,You must not parade your success,果而勿伐You must not boast of your ability,,果而勿驕,You must not feel  proud,果而不得已, You must rather regret that you had not been able to prevent the war.果而勿強。You must never think of conquering others by force.物壯則老,For to be over- developed is to hasten decay,是謂不道,And this is against Tao,不道早已。And what is against Tao will soon cease to be.

{原文}

以道佐人主者,不以兵強天下,其事好還。師之所處,荊棘生焉。大軍之後,必有凶年。善有果而已,不敢以取強。果而勿矜,果而勿伐,果而勿驕,果而不得已,果而勿強。物壯則老,是謂不道,不道早已。

[譯文]

依照的原則輔佐君主的人,不以兵力逞強于天下。窮兵黷武這種事必然會得到報應。軍隊所到的地方,荊棘橫生,大戰之後,一定會出現荒年。善于用兵的人,只要達到用兵的目的也就可以了,幷不以兵力強大而逞強好鬥。達到目的了却不自我矜持,達到目的了也不去誇耀驕傲,達到目的了也不要自以爲是,達到目的却出于不得已,達到目的却不逞強。事物過去強大就會走向衰朽,這就說明它不符合于,不符合于的,就會很快死亡。

 

31貴左章第三十一 The Graceful Left

夫佳兵者不祥之器。Fine weapons of war augur evil。物或惡之,Even things seem to hate them。故有道者不處。Therefore a man of Tao does not set his heart upon them君子居則貴左,In ordinary lifea gentleman regards the left side as the place of honour:用兵則貴右。In war the right side is the place of honour。兵者不祥之器,As weapons arc instruments of evil,非君子之器;They are not properly a gentleman's instruments;不得已而用之。Only on necessity will he resort to them.恬淡為上,For peace and quiet are dearest to his heart,勝而不美。And to them even a victory is no causc for rejoicing。而美之者,是樂殺人。To rejoice over a victory is to rejoice over the slaughter Of menn!夫樂殺人者,則不可以得志于天下矣。Hence a man who rejoices over  the slaughter of men Cannot expect to thrivein the world of men吉事尚左,凶事尚右。On happy occasions the left side is preferre, On sad occasions the right side偏將軍居左,In the army, Lieutenant Commander stands on the left,上將軍居右。ぃWhile the commander-in-Chief stands on the right。言以喪禮處之。This means that war is treated on a par with a funeral service殺人之眾,以哀悲泣之。Because many people have been killed it is only right that survivors should mourn for them。戰勝以喪禮處之。Hence,even a victory is a funeral

{原文}

夫兵者,不祥之器,物或惡之,故有道者不處。君子居則貴左,用兵則貴右。兵者不祥之器,非君子之器,不得已而用之,恬淡為上,勝而不美,而美之者,是樂殺人。夫樂殺人者,則不可得志于天下矣。吉事尚左,凶事尚右。偏將軍居左,上將軍居右。言以喪禮處之。殺人之眾,以悲哀莅之,戰勝以喪禮處之。

[譯文]

兵器啊,是不祥的東西,人們都厭惡它,所以有“道”的人不使用它。君子平時居處就以左邊為貴而用兵打仗時就以右邊爲貴。兵器這個不祥的東西,不是君子所使用的東西,萬不得已而使用它,最好淡然處之,勝利了也不要自鳴得意,如果自以爲了不起,那就是喜歡殺人。凡是喜歡殺人的人,就不可能得志于天下。吉慶的事情以左邊爲上,凶喪的事情以右方爲上,偏將軍居于左邊,上將軍居于右邊,這就是說要以喪禮儀式來處理用兵打仗的事情。戰爭中殺人衆多,要用哀痛的心情參加,打了勝仗,也要以喪禮的儀式去對待戰死的人。

 

32知止章第三十二Knowing the Limit of mankind

道常無名。Tao is always nameless.樸雖小,Small as it is in its primal simplicity, 天下莫能臣也。It is inferior to nothing in the world.侯王若能守之,If only a ruler could cling to it,萬物將自賓,Everything will render homage to him.天地相合,Heaven and Earth will be harmonized以降甘露,And send down sweet dew.民莫之令而自均。Peace and order will reign among the people Without any command from above.始制有名。When once the Primal simplicity diversified,名亦既有,Different names appeared.夫亦將知止。Are there not enough names now?知止可以不殆。Is this not the time to stop? To know when to stop is to preserve ourselves from danger.譬道之在天下,猶川谷之于江海。The Tao is to the world what a great river or an ocean is to the streams and brooks.

{原文}

道常無名,樸雖小,天下莫能臣。侯王若能守之,萬物將自賓。天地相合,以降甘露,民莫之令而自均。始制有名,名亦既有,夫亦將知止,知止可以不殆。譬道之在天下,猶川谷之于江海。

[譯文]

“道”永遠是無名而質樸的,它雖然很小不可見,天下沒有誰能使它服從自己。侯王如果能夠依照“道”的原則治理天下,百姓們將會自然地歸從于它。天地間陰陽之氣相合,就會降下甘露,人們不必指使它而會自然均勻。治理天下就要建立一種管理體制,制定各種制度確定各種名分,任命各級官長辦事。名分既然有了,就要有所制約,適可而止,知道制約、適可而止,就沒有什麽危險了。“道”存在于天下,就像江海,一切河川溪水都歸流于它,使萬物自然賓服。

 

33盡已章第三十三The utmost Effort

知人者智,He who knows men is clever,自知者明。He who knows himself has insight.勝人者有力。He who conquers  men has  force;自勝者強。He who conquers himself is truly strong.知足者富。He who knows when he has got enough is rich,強行者有志。And he who adheres assiduously to the path of  Tao is a man of steady purpose.不失其所者久,He who stays where he has found his true home endures long.死而不亡者壽。And he who dies but perishes not enjoys real longevity.

{原文}

知人者智,自知者明。勝人者有力,自勝者強。知足者富,強行者有志,不失其所者久,死而不亡者壽。

[譯文]

能瞭解、認識別人叫做智慧,能認識、瞭解自己才算聰明。能戰勝別人是有力的,能克制自己的弱點才算剛強。知道滿足的人才是富有人。堅持力行、努力不懈的就是有志。不離失本分的人就能長久不衰,身雖死而仍存的,才算真正的長壽。

 

34成大章第三十四The Nature of Tao

大道汜兮,The great Tao is universal like a flood.其可左右? How can it beturned to the right or to the left?萬物恃之而生All creatures depend on it,而不辭。And it denies nothing to anyone.功成It does its work,不名有。But it makes no claims for itself.衣養萬物It clothes and feeds all,而不為主:But it does notlord it over them:常無欲,可名於「小」。Thus, it may be called"the Little."萬物歸焉All things return to it as to their home,而不為主:But it does not lord it over them:可名為「大」。Thus, it may be called "the Great.” 以其終不自為大,故能成其大。It is just because it does not wish to be great That its greatness is fully realized.

{原文}

大道汜兮,其可左右。萬物恃之以生而不辭,功成而不有。衣養萬物而不為主,常無欲,可名于小;萬物歸焉而不為主,可名為大。以其終不自為大,故能成其大。

[譯文]

大道廣泛流行,左右上下無所不到。萬物依賴它生長而不推辭,完成了功業,辦妥了事業,而不占有名譽。它養育萬物而不自以為主,可以稱它為“小”,萬物歸附而不自以為主宰,可以稱它為“大”。正因為他不自以為偉大,所以才能成就它的偉大、完成它的偉大。

 

35大象章第三十五The attraction of Tao

執大象,天下往。He who holds the Great Symbol will attract all things to him,往而不害,They flock to him and receive no harm, for in him they Find peace,安平太。security and happiness.樂與餌,過客止。Music and  dainty dishes can only make a passing guest pause.道之出口,But the wordsof Tao possess lasting effects,淡乎其無味;Though they are mild and flavourless,視之不足見,聽之不足聞,Though theyappeal neither to the eye nor to the ear.用之不足既。However its supply is unlimited.

{原文}

執大象,天下往。往而不害,安平太。樂與餌,過客止,道之出口,淡乎其無味,視之不足見,聽之不足聞,用之不足既。

[譯文]

誰掌握了那偉大的“道”,普天下的人們便都來向他投靠,向往、投靠他而不互相妨害,于是大家就和平而安泰、寧靜。音樂和美好的食物,使過路的人都爲之停步,用言語來表述大道,是平淡而無味兒的,看它,看也看不見,聽它,聽也聽不見,而它的作用,却是無窮無盡的,無限制的。

 

36微明章第三十六The subtle Strategy of Tao

將欲歙之,What is in the end to be snrunken,必固張之。Begins by being first stretched out.將欲弱之,What is in the end to be weakened,必固強之。Begins by being first made strong.將欲廢之,What is in the end to be thrown down,必固興之。Begins by being first set on high.將欲奪之,What is in the end to be despoiled,必固與之。Begins by being first richly endowed.是謂微明:Herein is the subtle wisdom of life:柔弱勝剛強。The soft and weak overcomes the hard and strong魚不可脫於淵。Just as the fish must not leave the deeps,國之利器,不可以示人。So the ruler must not display his weapons.

{原文}

將欲歙之,必固張之;將欲弱之,必固強之;將欲廢之,必固興之;將欲取之,必固與之。是謂微明,柔弱勝剛強。魚不可脫于淵,國之利器不可以示人。

[譯文]

想要收斂它,必先擴張它,想要削弱它,必先加強它,想要廢去它,必先台舉它,想要奪取它,必先給予它。這就叫做雖然微妙而又顯明,柔弱戰勝剛強。魚的生存不可以脫離池淵,國家的刑法政教不可以向人炫耀,不能輕易用來嚇唬人。 [注釋]

 

37無為章第三十七Idle but Efficacious

道常無為,"Tao never makes any ado,而無不為。And yet it does everything.侯王若能守之,If a ruler can cling to it,萬物將自化。All things will evolve themselves.化而欲作,When they have grown and tend to make a stir,吾將鎮之以無名之樸。It is time to keep them in their place by the aid of the nameless Primal Simplicity,鎮之以無名之樸,In keeping them in their nameless Primal Simplicity,夫亦將無欲。Which alone can curb the desires of men.不欲以靜,When the desires of men are curbed,天下將自定。hENCE the world will settle down of its own accorc

{原文}

道常無為而無不為。侯王若能守之,萬物將自化。化而欲作,吾將鎮之以無名之樸,鎮之以無名之樸,夫將不欲。不慾以靜,天下將自定。

[譯文]

道永遠是順任自然而無所作為的,却又沒有什麽事情不是它所作為的。侯王如果能按照“道”的原則為政治民,萬事萬物就會自我化育、自生自滅而得以充分發展。自生自長而産生貪欲時,我就要用“道”來鎮住它。用“道”的真樸來鎮服它,就不會産生貪欲之心了,萬事萬物沒有貪欲之心,天下便自然而然達到穩定、安寧。

 

38明德章第三十八Obsequious Hypocrisy

上德不德,High virtue is unnoticeable;是以有德。thereFore it is virtuous.下德不失德,Low virtue never frees itself from even the smallest virtuousnessTherefore是以無德。it has no genuine virtue.上德無為,而無以為。High Virtue makes no fuss and has no private ends to serve:下德為之,而有以為。Low virtue not only fusses but has private ends to serve.上仁為之,而無以為。High humanity fusses but has no private ends to serve:上義為之,而有以為。High morality not only fusses but has private ends to serve.上禮為之,而莫之應,High ceremony fusses but finds no response;則攘臂而扔之。Then it tries to enforce itself with rolled-up sleeves.故失道而後德Failing Tao, man resorts to Virtue.,失德而後仁,Failing Virtue, man resorts to humanity.失仁而後義,Filling humanity, man resorts to morality.失義而後禮。Failing morality, man resorts to ceremony.夫禮者,忠信之薄;Now, ceremony is the merest husk of faith and loyalty;而亂之首。It is the beginning of all confusion and disorder.前識者道之華,As to foreknowledge, it is only the flower of Tao,而愚之始。And the beginning of folly.是以大丈夫處其厚,不居其薄;Thefore, the full-grown man sets his heart upon the substance rather than the husk;處其實,不居其華。Upon the fruit rather than the flower,故去彼取此。Truly, he prefers what is within to what is without.

{原文}

上德不德,是以有德;下德不失德,是以無德。上德無為而無以為;下德無為而有以為。上仁為之而無以為;上義為之而有以為。上禮為之而莫之應,則攘臂而扔之。故失道而後德,失德面後仁,失仁而後義,失義而後禮。夫禮者,忠信之薄,而亂之首。前識者,道之華,而愚之始。是以大丈夫處其厚,不居其薄;處其實,不居其華。故去彼取此。

[譯文]

具備“上德”的人不表現為外在的有德,因此實際上是有“德”;具備“下德”的人表現為外在的不離失“道”,因此實際是沒有“德”的。“上德”之人順應自然無心作為,“下德”之人順應自然而有心作為。上仁之人要有所作為却沒有回應他,于是就揚著胳膊强引別人。所以,失去了“道”而後才有“德”,失去了“德”而後才有“仁”,失去了“仁”而後才有“義”,失去了義而後才有禮。“禮”這個東西,是忠信不足的産物,而且是禍亂的開端。所謂“先知”,不過是“道”的虛華,由此愚昧開始産生。所以大丈夫立身敦厚,不居于澆薄;存心樸實,不居于虛華。所以要捨弃澆薄虛華而采取樸實敦厚。

 

39知本章第三十九The undeniable Origin

昔之得一者。From of old there are not lacking things that have attained Oneness.天得一以清;The sky  attained Oneness and became clear;地得一以寧;The earth attained Oneness and became calm神得一以靈;The spirits attained Oneness and became charged with mystical powers;谷得一以盈;The fountains attained Oneness and became full,萬物得一以生;The ten thousand creatures attained Oneness And became reproductive;侯王得一以為天下貞。Marquis and princes attained Oneness and became sovereign rulers of the world.其致之。All of them are what they are by virtue of Oneness.天無以清,將恐裂。If the sky were not clear, it would be likely to crack into pieces;地無以寧,將恐發。If the earth were not calm, it would be likely to burstinto bits;神無以靈,將恐歇。If the spirits were not charged with mystical powers, They would be likely to cease from being;谷無以盈,將恐竭。If the fountains were not full, they would be likely to dry up;萬物無以生,將恐滅。If the ten thousand creatures were not productive, they would be likely to come to extinction;侯王無以貴高,將恐獗。If the Marquis and princes were not the sovereign rulers, they would be likely  to stumble and fall.故貴以賤為本,Truly, humility is the root from which greatness springs,高以下為基。And the high must be built upon the foundation of the low.是以侯王自謂That is why Marquis and princes style themselves「孤寡不穀」 。‘The Helpless One,” "The Little One, and "The Worthless One.,,此非以賤為本耶?Perhaps they too realize their dependence upon the lowly.非乎?故致數輿無輿。Truly, too much honour means no honour.不欲碌綠如玉,珞珞如石。It is not wise to shine like jade and resound like stone-chimes.

{原文}

昔之得一者,天得一以清;地得一以寧;神得一以靈;穀得一以盈,萬物得一以生;侯王得一以為天下正。其致之也,謂天無以清,將恐裂;地無以寧,將恐廢;神無以靈,將恐歇;穀無以盈,將恐竭;萬物無以生,將恐滅;侯王無以正,將恐蹶。故貴以賤為本,高以下為基。是以侯王自稱孤、寡、不穀。此非以賤為本邪?非乎?故至譽無譽。是故不欲琭琭如玉,珞珞如石。

[譯文]

往昔曾得到過道的:天得到道而清明;地得到道而寧靜;神(人)得到道而英靈;河谷得到道而充盈;萬物得到道而生長;侯王得到道而成為天下的首領。推而言之,天不得清明,恐怕要崩裂;地不得安寧,恐怕要震潰;人不能保持靈性,恐怕要滅絕;河谷不能保持流水,恐怕要乾涸;萬物不能保持生長,恐怕要消滅;侯王不能保持天下首領的地位,恐怕要傾覆。所以貴以賤為根本,高以下爲基礎,因此侯王們自稱爲“孤”、“寡”、“不穀”,這不就是以賤爲根本嗎?不是嗎?所以最高的榮譽無須贊美稱譽。不要求琭琭晶瑩像寶玉,而寧願珞珞堅硬像山石。

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