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道德經章40-49中英淺譯  

2015-11-17 20:43:43|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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道德經章40-49中英淺譯

 

40道用章第四十Reviewing the Intrincic value of Tao

反者道之動。The movement of the Tao consists in Returning.弱者道之用。The use of the Tao consists in softness.天下萬物生於有。All things under heaven are born of the corporeal:有生於無。The corporeal is born of the Incorporeal.

{原文}

反者道之動,弱者道之用。天下萬物生于有,有生于無。

[譯文]

循環往復的運動變化,是道的運動,道的作用是微妙、柔弱的。天下的萬物産生于看得見的有形質,有形質又産生于不可見的無形質。

 

41道品章第四十一The Command of Tao

上士聞道,勤而行之。Wen a wise scholar hears the Tao, He practises it diligently.中士聞道,若存若亡。Vhen a mediocre scholar hears the Tao, :He wavers between belief and unbelief.下士聞道,大笑之。When a charlatan hears the TaoHe laughs boisterously at it.不笑不足以為道。But ifsuch a one does not laugh at it,The Tao would not he the Tao!故建言有之:Thus assertion from olden days had stated:明道若昧。The bright Way looks dim.進道若退。The progressive Way looks retrograde.夷道若類。The smooth Way looks rugged.上德若谷。High Virtue looks like an abyss.大白若辱。Great whiteness looks spotted.廣德若不足。Abundant Virtue looks deficient.建德若偷。Established Virtue looks shabby.質真若渝。Solid Virtue looks as though melted.大方無隅。Great squareness has no corners.大器晚成。Great talents ripen late.大音希聲。Great sound is silent.大象無形。Great Form is shapeless.

道隱無名。The Tao is hidden and nameless;夫唯道,善貸且成。Yet it alone knows how to render help and to fulfill.

{原文}

上士聞道,勤而行之;中士聞道,若存若亡;下士聞道,大笑之。不笑不足以為道。故建言有之:明道若昧,進道若退,夷道若纇。上德若穀;大白若辱;廣德若不足;建德若偷;質真若渝。大方無隅;大器晚成;大音希聲;大象無形;道隱無名。夫唯道,善貸且成。

[譯文]

上士聽了道的理論,努力去實行;中士聽了道的理論,將信將疑;下士聽了道的理論,哈哈大笑。不被嘲笑,那就不足以成其為道了。因此古時立言的人說過這樣的話:光明的道好似暗昧;前進的道好似後退;平坦的道好似崎嶇;崇高的德好似峽谷;廣大的德好像不足;剛健的德好似怠惰;質樸而純真好像混濁未開。最潔白的東西,反而含有污垢;最方正的東西,反而沒有棱角;最大的聲響,反而聽來無聲無息;最大的形象,反而沒有形狀。道幽隱而沒有名稱,無名無聲

 

42根源章第四十二Reviewing the Axiom of Tao

道生一,Tao gave birth to One,一生二,One gave birth to Two,二生三,Two gave birth to Three,三生萬物。ThreeD gave birth to all the myriad things.萬物負陰而抱陽,All the myriad things carry the Yin on their backs and hold the Yang in their embrace,沖氣以為和。Deriving their vital harmony from the proper blending of the two vital Breaths.人之所惡,What is more loathed by men than to be唯「孤寡不榖」,“helpless,” “little” and “worthless”而王公以為稱。And yet these are the very names the princes and Marquis call themselves.故物或損之而益,Truly, one may gain by losing;或益之而損。And one  may lose by gaining.人之所教,我亦教之What another has taught let me repeat::「強梁者,不得其死。」“A man? of violence will come to a violent end.”吾將以為教父。Whoever said this can be my teacher and my father.

{原文}

道生一,一生二,二生三,三生萬物。萬物負陰而抱陽,沖氣以為和。人之所惡,唯孤、寡、不穀,而王公以為稱。故物或損之而益,或益之而損。人之所教,我亦教之。強梁者不得其死,吾將以為教父。

[譯文]

道是獨一無二的,道本身包含陰陽二氣,陰陽二氣相交而形成一種適勻的狀態,萬物在這種狀態中産生。萬物背陰而向陽,幷且在陰陽二氣的互相激蕩而成新的和諧體。人們最厭惡的就是“孤”、“寡”、“不谷”,但王公却用這些字來稱呼自己。所以一切事物,如果减損它却反而得到增加;如果增加它反而得到損。別人這樣教導我,我也這樣去教導別人。强暴的人死無其所。我把這句話當作施教的宗旨。

 

43至柔章第四十三The Power of Yielding

天下之至柔,The softest of all things馳聘天下之至堅。Overrides the hardest of all things.無有入無間。Only Nothing can enter into no-space.吾是以知無為之有益。Hence I know the advantages of Non-Ado.不言之教,Few things under heaven are as instructive as the lessons of Silence,無為之益,Or as beneficial as the fruits of Non-Ado.天下希及之。Such is all but rare to match.

{原文}

天下之至柔,馳騁天下之至堅。無有入無間,吾是以知無為之有益。不言之教,無為之益,天下希及之。

[譯文]

天下最柔弱的東西,騰越穿行于最堅硬的東西中;無形的力量可以穿透沒有間隙的東西。我因此認識到“無為”的益處。“不言”的教導,“無為”的益下,普天下少有能趕上它的了。

 

44保命章第四十四Beware of the Fatal Temptation

名與身孰親?As for your name and your body, which is the dearer?身與貨孰多?As for your body and your wealth, which is the more to be prized?得與亡孰病?As for gain and loss, which is the more painful?是故甚愛必大費。Thus an excessive love for anything will cost you dearin the end.多藏必厚亡。The storing up of too much goods will entail a heavy loss.知足不辱。To know when you have enough is to be immune from disgrace.知止不殆。To know when to stop is to be preserved from perils.可以長久。Only thus can you endure long.

{原文}

名與身孰親?身與貨孰多?得與亡孰病?甚愛必大費,多藏必厚亡。故知足不辱,知止不殆,可以長久。

[譯文]

聲名和生命相比哪一樣更爲親切?生命和貨利比起來哪一樣更爲貴重?獲取和丟失相比,哪一個更有害?過分的愛名利就必定要付出更多的代價;過于積斂財富,必定會遭致更爲慘重的損失。所以說,懂得滿足,就不會受到屈辱;懂得適可而止,就不會遇見危險;這樣才可以保持住長久的平安。

 

45靜章第四十五The Fallible Concept

大成若缺,The greatest perfection seems imperfect,其用不弊。And yet its use is inexhaustible.大盈若沖,The greatestt fullness seems empty,其用不窮。And yet  its use is endless.大直若屈。The greatest] straightness looks like crookedness.大巧若拙。The greatest skill appears clumsy.大辯若訥。The greatest eloquence sounds like stammering.躁勝寒。Restlessness overcomes cold,靜勝熱。But calm overcomes heat.清靜為天下正。The peaceful and serene Is the Norm of the World.

{原文}

大成若缺,其用不弊。大盈若沖,其用不窮。大直若屈,大巧若拙,大辯若訥。靜勝躁,寒勝熱。清靜為天下正。

[譯文]

最完滿的東西,好似有殘缺一樣,但它的作用永遠不會衰竭;最充盈的東西,好似是空虛一樣,但是它的作用是不會窮盡的。最正直的東西,好似有彎曲一樣;最靈巧的東西,好似最笨拙的;最卓越的辯才,好似不善言辭一樣。清靜克服擾動,賽冷克服暑熱。清靜無爲才能統治天下。

 

46常足章第四十六 Self-Content is Pacifism

天下有道,When the world is in possession of the Tao,卻走馬以糞。The galloping horses are led to fertilize the fields with

their droppings.天下無道,When the world has become Taoless,戎馬生於郊。War horses breed themselves on the suburbs.禍莫大於不知足。There is no calamity like not knowing what is enough.咎莫大於欲得。There is no evil like covetousness.故知足之足常足矣。Only he who knows what is enough will always have enough.

{原文}

天下有道,卻走馬以糞,天下無道,戎馬生于郊。禍莫大于不知足;咎莫大于欲得。故知足之足,常足矣。

 [譯文]

治理天下合乎“道”,就可以作到太平安定,把戰馬退還到田間給農夫用來耕種。治理天下不合乎“道”,連懷胎的母馬也要送上戰場,在戰場的郊外生下馬駒子。最大的禍害是不知足,最大的過失是貪得的欲望。知道到什麽地步就該滿足了的人,永遠是滿足的。

 

47知見章第四十七Brilliant Foresight of the Tao

不出戶,Without going out of your door,知天下。You cant know the ways of the world.不關牖,Without peeping through your window,見天道。You can see the Way of Heaven.其出彌遠,The farther you go,其知彌少。The less you know.

以是聖人不行而知, Thus, the Sage knows without travelling不見而名,Sees without looking,不為而成。And achieves without Ado.

{原文}

不出戶,知天下;不窺牖,見天道。其出彌遠,其知彌少。是以聖人不行而知,不見而明,不為而成。

[譯文]

不出門戶,就能够推知天下的事理;不望窗外,就可以認識日月星辰運行的自然規律。他向外奔逐得越遠,他所知道的道理就越少。所以,有“道”的聖人不出行却能够推知事理,不窺見而能明瞭“天道”,不妄爲而可以有所成就。

 

48損益章第四十八Inwardness of Progression

為學日益,Learning consists in daily accumulating,

為道日損。The practice of Tao consists in daily diminishing.損之又損,Keep on diminishing and diminishing,以至於無為Until you reach the state of No-Ado.。無為而無不為。No Ado, and vet nothing is left undone.取天下常以無事。To win the world, one must renounce all.及其有事,If   one still has private ends to serve,不足以取天下One will never be able to win the world.

{原文}

為學日益,為道日損,損之又損,以至于無為。無為而無不為,取天下常以無事;及其有事,不足以取天下。

[譯文]

求學的人,其情欲文飾一天比一天增加;求道的人,其情欲文飾則一天比一天减少。减少又减少,到最後以至于“無為”的境地。如果能够做到無為,即不妄為,任何事情都可以有所作為。治理國家的人,要經常以不騷擾人民為治國之本,如果經常以繁苛之政擾害民衆,那就不配治理國家了。

 

49德善章第四十九A Paradigm for rulers to copy

聖人無常心,The Sage has no interests of his own,以百姓心為心。But takes the interests of the people as his own.善者吾善之,He is kind to the kind;不善者吾亦善之;He is also Kind to the unkind:德善。For Virtue is kind.信者吾信之,He is faithful to the faithful;不信者吾亦信之;He is also faithful to the unfaithful:德信。For Virtue is faithful.

聖人在天下, In the  midst of the world, 歙歙為天下渾其心。the Sage is shy and self-effacing. For the sake of the world he keeps his heart in its nebulous百姓皆注其耳目All the people strain their ears and eyes:,聖人皆孩之。The Sage only smiles like an amused infant.

{}原文

聖人常無心,以百姓之心為心。善者,吾善之;不善者,吾亦善之,德善。信者,吾信之;不信者,吾亦信之,德信。聖人在天下,歙歙焉為天下渾其心,百姓皆注其耳目,聖人皆孩之。

[譯文]

聖人常常是沒有私心的,以百姓的心為自己的心。對于善良的人,我善待于他;對于不善良的人,我也善待他,這樣就可以得到善良了,從而使人人向善。對于守信的人,我信任他;對不守信的人,我也信任他,這樣可以得到誠信了,從而使人人守信。有道的聖人在其位,收斂自己的欲意,使天下的心思歸于渾樸。百姓們都專注于自己的耳目聰明,有道的人使他們都回到嬰孩般純樸的狀態。
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