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道德經章58-66中英淺譯  

2015-11-24 23:27:47|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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道德經章58-66中英淺譯

 

58為政章第五十八To govern by not-governing

其政悶悶,Where the ruler is inactive and dull其民淳淳。The people are simple and happy.其政察察,Where the ruler is bright, and active,其民缺缺。The  people are wily and discontented.禍兮福之所倚,Bad fortune is what good fortune leans on,福兮禍之所伏。Good fortune is what bad fortune hides in.孰知其極?Who knows the ultimate end of this process ?其無正。Is there no norm of right?正復為奇,Yet what is normal soon becomes abnormal,善復為妖,And what is auspicious soon turns ominous.人之迷。其日固久。Long indeed have the people been in a quandary.是以聖人方而不割,Therefore, the Sage squares without cutting,廉而不劌,carves without disfiguring,直而不肆,straightens without straining,光而不耀。enlightens without dazzling.

{原文}

其政悶悶,其民淳淳;其政察察,其民缺缺。禍兮,福之所倚;福兮,禍之所伏。孰知其極:其無正也。正複為奇,善複為妖。人之迷,其日固久。是以聖人方而不割,廉而不劌,直而不肆,光而不耀。

[譯文]

政治寬厚清明,人民就淳樸忠誠;政治苛酷黑暗,人民就狡黠、抱怨。災禍啊,幸福依傍在它的裏面;幸福啊,灾禍藏伏在它的裏面。誰能知道究竟是災禍呢還是幸福呢?它們并沒有確定的標準。正忽然轉變為邪的,善忽然轉變為惡的,人們的迷惑,由來已久了。因此,有道的聖人方正而不生硬,有棱角而不傷害人,直率而不放肆,光亮而不刺眼。

 

59長生章第五十九Spend lesser to stay longer

治人事天,In governing a people and in servint? Heaven,莫若嗇。There is nothing like frugality.夫唯嗇,To be frugal是謂早服。Is to return before straying.早服謂之重積德。To return before straying is to have a double reserve of Virtue.重積德,則無不克。To have a double reserve or Virtue is to overcome everything.無不克,則莫知其極。To overcome everything is to reach an invisible height.莫知其極,可以有國。Only he who has reached an invisible height can have-a kingdom有國之母,可以長久。Only he who has got the Mother of a kingdom can last long.是謂深根固柢,This is the way to be deep-rooted and firm-planted in the Tao,長生久視之道。The secret of long life and lasting vision.

{原文}

治人事天,莫若嗇。夫唯嗇,是謂早服;早服謂之重積德;重積德則無不克;無不克則莫知其極,莫知其極,可以有國;有國之母,可以長久。是謂根深固柢,長生久視之道。

[譯文]

治理百姓和養護身心,沒有比愛惜精神更爲重要的了。愛惜精神,得以能够做到早作準備;早作準備,就是不斷地積“德”;不斷地積“德”,就沒有什麽不能攻克的;沒有什麽不能攻克,那就無法估量他的力量;具備了這種無法估量的力量,就可以擔負治理國家的重任。有了治理國家的原則和道理,國家就可以長久維持。國運長久,就叫做根深柢固,符合長久維持之道。

 

60大國章第六十Lesser rulings for a Bigger ruler.

治大國若烹小鮮。Ruling a big kingdom is like cooking a small fish.以道莅天下,When a man of Tao reigns over the world,其鬼不神。demons have no spiritual powers.非其鬼不神,Not that the demons have no spiritual powers,其神不傷人。but the spirits themselves do no harm to men.非其神不傷人,Not that the spirits do no harm to men,聖人亦不傷人。but the Sage himself does no harm to his people.夫兩不相傷,If only the ruler and his people would refrain from harmingeach other,故德交歸焉。all the benefits of life would accumulate in the kingdom.

{原文}

治大國,若烹小鮮,以道莅天下,其鬼不神。非其鬼不神,其神不傷人。非其神不傷人,聖人亦不傷人。夫兩不相傷,故德交歸焉。

[譯文]

治理大國,好象煎烹小魚。用“道”治理天下,鬼神起不了作用,不僅鬼不起作用,而是鬼怪的作用傷不了人。不但鬼的作用傷害不了人,聖人有道也不會傷害人。這樣,鬼神和有道的聖人都不傷害人,所以,就可以讓人民享受到德的恩澤。

 

61居下章第六十一The Efficiency of Modesty

大國者下流。A great country is like the lowland toward which all streams flow.天下之交It is the Reservoir of all under heaven,天下之牝。the Feminine of the world.牝常以靜勝牡,The Feminine always conquers the Masculine by her quietness,以靜爲下by lowering herself through her quietness.故大國以下小國,Hence, if a great country can lower itself before a small country,則取小國;it will win over the small country;小國以下大國,and if a small country can lower itself before a great country,則取大國。it will win over the great country.故或下以取The one wins by stooping the other,或下而取。by remaining low.大國不過欲兼畜人。What a great country wants is simply to embrace more people;小國不過欲入事人。and what a small country wants is simply to come to serve its patron.夫兩者各得其所。Thus, each gets what it wants.欲大者宜爲下。But it behooves a great country to lower itself.

{原文}

大國者若下流,天下之交,天下之牝。牝恒以靜勝牡,以靜爲下。故大國以下小國,則取小國。小國以下大國,則取大國。故或下以取,或下而取。大國不過欲兼蓄人,小國不過欲入事人。夫兩者各得其所欲,大者宜爲下。

[譯文]

大國如果謙卑處下似江海,就能成爲天下文化的彙歸之處,就會成爲天下依賴的母親。雌性堅持以柔靜征服雄性,在于她以靜爲下的自性。所以大國若對小國謙卑處下,便能贏得小國的信賴。小國若對大國謙卑處下,便能獲得大國的保護。所以或者因謙卑處下而贏得信賴,或者因謙卑處下而獲得保護。大國希望有小國的加盟而强大,小國希望借大國的力量而生存。若想讓兩者都得到自己所希望的目的,大國的謙卑尤其重要。

 

62贊道章第六十二The Indispensable Tao

道者萬物之奧,The fao is the hidden Reservoir of all things.善人之寶,A treasure to the honest,不善人之所保。it is a safeguard to the erring.美言可以市,A good word will fina its own market.尊行可以加人。A good deed may be used as a gift to another.人之不善,That a man is straying from the right path何弃之有?Is no reason that he should be cast away.故立天子,Hence,at the Enthronement of an Emperor,置三公,Or at the Installation of the Three Dukes,雖有拱璧Let others offer their discs of jade,以先駟馬,following it up with, teams of horses;不如坐進此道。It is better for you to offer the Tao without moving your feet!古之所以貴此道者何?Why did the ancients prize the Tao?不曰以求得,Is it nor because by virtue of it he who seeks finds,有罪以免耶?And the guilty are forgiven?故爲天下貴。That is why it is such a treasure to the world.

{原文}

道者,萬物之奧,善人之寶,不善人之所保。美言可以市尊,美行可以加人。人之不善,何弃之有?故立天子,置三公,雖有拱璧以先駟馬,不如坐進此道。古之所以貴此道者何?不曰:求以得,有罪以免邪?故爲天下貴。

[譯文]

“道”是蔭庇萬物之所,善良之人珍貴它,不善的人也要保持它。需要的時候還要求它庇護。美好的言辭可以換來別人對你的尊重;良好的行爲可以見重于人。不善的人怎能捨弃它呢?所以在天子即位、設置三公的時候,雖然有拱壁在先駟馬在後的獻禮儀式,還不如把這個“道”進獻給他們。自古以來,人們所以把“道”看得這樣寶貴,不正是由于求它庇護一定可以得到滿足;犯了罪過,也可得到它的寬恕嗎?就因爲這個,天下人才如此珍視“道”。

 

63源頭章第六十三The key to Success

爲無爲。Do the Non-Ado.事無事。Strive for the effortless.味無味。Savour the savourless.大小多少。Exalt the low. Multiply the few.報怨以德。Requite injury with kindness. 圖難于其易。Nip troubles in the bud.爲大于其細。Sow the great in the small.天下難事必作于易。Difficult things of the world Can only be tackled when they are easy.天下大事必作于細。Big things of the world Can only be achieved by attending to their small beginnings.是以聖人終不爲大,Thusthe Sage never has to grapple with big things,故能成其大。Yet he alone is capable of achieving them !夫輕諾必寡信。He who promises lightly must be lacking in faith.多易必多難。He who thinks everything easy will end by finding everything difficult.是以聖人猶難之,故終無難矣。Thereforethe Sage, who regards everything as difficult, Meets with no difficulties in the end.

{原文}

爲無爲,事無事,味無味。大小多少。報怨以德。圖難于其易,爲大于其細;天下難事,必作于易;天下大事,必作于細。是以聖人終不爲大,故能成其大。夫輕諾必寡信,多易必多難。是以聖人猶難之,故終無難矣。

[譯文]

以無爲的態度去有所作爲,以不滋事的方法去處理事物,以恬淡無味當作有味。大生于小,多起于少。處理問題要從容易的地方入手,實現遠大要從細微的地方入手。天下的難事,一定從簡易的地方做起;天下的大事,一定從微細的部分開端。因此,有“道”的聖人始終不貪圖大貢獻,所以才能做成大事。那些輕易發出諾言的,必定很少能够兌現的,把事情看得太容易,勢必遭受很多困難。因此,有道的聖人總是看重困難,所以就終于沒有困難了。

 

64輔物章第六十四The predictable Evolution

其安易持。What is at rest is easy to hold.其未兆易謀。What manifests no omens is easily forestalled.其脆易泮。What is fragile is easily shattered.其微易散。What is small is easily scattered.爲之于未有,Tackle things before they have appeared.治之于未亂。Cultivate peace and order before confusion and disorderhave set in.合抱之木生于毫末。A tree as big as a man's embrace springs from a tiny sprout.九層之台,起于累土。A tower nine stories high begins with a heap of earth.千里之行始于足下。A journey of a thousand leagues starts from where your feet stand.爲者敗之,He who fusses over anything spoils it.執者失之。He who grasps anything loses it.是以聖人無爲故無敗,The Sage fusses over nothing and therefore spoils nothing.無執故無失。He grips at nothing and therefore loses nothing.民之從事,常于幾成而敗之。In handling affairs, people often spoil them just at the point of success.慎終如始,則無敗事。With heedfulness in the beginning and patience at the end, nothing will be spoiled. 是以聖人欲不欲,therefore, the Sage desires to be desireless.不貴難得之貨;Sets no value on rare goods,學不學,Learns to unlearn his learning,複衆人之所過:And induces the masses to return from where they have overpassed.以輔萬物之自然而不敢爲。He only helps all

creatures to find their own nature, But does not venture to lead them by the nose.

{原文}

其安易持,其未兆易謀;其脆易泮,其微易散。爲之于未有,治之于未亂。合抱之木,生于毫末;九層之台,起于累土;千里之行,始于足下。爲者敗之,執者失之。是以聖人無爲故無敗,無執故無失。民之從事,常于幾成而敗之。慎終如始,則無敗事。是以聖人欲不欲,不貴難得之貨,學不學,複衆人之所過,以輔萬物之自然而不敢爲。

[譯文]

局面安定時容易保持和維護,事變沒有出現迹象時容易圖謀;事物脆弱時容易消解;事物細微時容易散失;做事情要在它尚未發生以前就處理妥當;治理國政,要在禍亂沒有産生以前就早做準備。合抱的大樹,生長于細小的萌芽;九層的高臺,築起于每一堆泥土;千里的遠行,是從脚下第一步開始走出來的。有所作爲的將會招致失敗,有所執著的將會遭受損害。因此聖人無所作爲所以也不會招致失敗,無所執著所以也不遭受損害。人們做事情,總是在快要成功時失敗,所以當事情快要完成的時候,也要像開始時那樣慎重,就沒有辦不成的事情。因此,有道的聖人追求人所不追求的,不稀罕難以得到的貨物,學習別人所不學習的,補救衆人所經常犯的過錯。這樣遵循萬物的自然本性而不會妄加干預。

 

65大順章第六十五An Ideal Civilization

古之善爲道者,In the old days, those who were well versed in the practice of the Tao非以明民,did not try to enlighten the people,將以愚之。but rather to keep them in the state of simplicity. For,民之難治,why are the people hard to govern?以其智多。Because they are too clever!故以智治國,國之賊。Thereforehe who governs his state with cleverness is its malefactor;不以智治國,國之福。but he who governs his state without resorting to cleverness is its benefactor.知此兩者亦稽式。To know these two principles is to possess a rule and a measure.常知稽式, To keep the rule and the measure constantly in your mind是謂元德。 is what we call Mystical Virtue.元德深矣,遠矣, Deep and far-reaching is Mystical Virtue! 與物反矣,然後乃至大順。It leads all things to return, till they come back to Great Harmony!

{原文}

古之善爲道者,非以明民,將以愚之。民之難治,以其智多。故以智治國,國之賊;不以智治國,國之福。知此兩者,亦稽式。常知稽式,是謂玄德。玄德深矣,遠矣,與物反矣,然後乃至大順。

[譯文]

古代善于爲道的人,不是教導人民知曉智巧僞詐,而是教導人民淳厚樸實。人們之所以難于統治,乃是因爲他們使用太多的智巧心機。所以用智巧心機治理國家,就必然會危害國家,不用智巧心機治理國家,才是國家的幸福。瞭解這兩種治國方式的差別,就是一個法則,經常瞭解這個法則,就叫做“玄德”。玄德又深又遠,和具體的事物複歸到真樸,然後才能極大地順乎于自然。

 

66善下章第六十六The Power of Amicability

江海所以能爲百谷王者How does the sea become the king of all streams?以其善下之Because it lies lower than they故能爲百谷王。Hence it is the king of all streams.是以欲上民Thereforethe Sage reigns over the people by必以言下之humbling himself in speech欲先民必以身後之。And leads the people by putting himself behind.是以聖人處上而民不重,Thus it is that when a Sage stands above the people, theydo not feel the heaviness of his weight;處前而民不害。And when he stands in front of the people, they do not feel hurt.是以天下樂推而不厭。Therefore all the world is glad to push him forward without getting tired of him.以其不爭,故天下莫能與之爭。Just because he strives with nobody, Nobody can ever strive with him.

{原文}

江海之所以能爲百谷王者,以其善下之,故能爲百谷王。是以聖人欲上民,必以言下之;欲先民,必以身後之。是以聖人處上而民不重,處前而民不害。是以天下樂推而不厭。以其不爭,故天下莫能與之爭。[譯文]

江海所以能够成爲百川河流所彙往的地方,乃是由于它善于處在低下的地方,所以能够成爲百川之王。因此,聖人要領導人民,必須用言辭對人民表示謙下,要想領導人民,必須把自己的利益放在他們的後面。所以,有道的聖人雖然地位居于人民之上,而人民幷不感到負擔沈重;居于人民之前,而人民幷不感到受害。天下的人民都樂意推戴而不感到厭倦。因爲他不與人民相爭,所以天下沒有人能和他相爭。

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