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道德經章67-77中英淺譯  

2015-11-28 11:05:34|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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道德經章67-77中英淺譯

 

67三寶章第六十七The Three Principles

天下皆謂我道大,All the world says that my Tao is great,似不肖。but seems queer,夫唯大,like nothing on earth. But it is just because my lao is great故似不肖。that it is like notning on earth. If it were like anything on earth,若肖,久矣其細也夫!how small it would have been from the very beginning!我有三寶,I have Three Treasures,持而保之。which I hold fast and watch over closely.一曰慈。The first is Mercy.二曰儉。The second is Frugality.三曰不敢爲天下先,The third is Not Daring to Be First in the World.慈故能勇。Because I am merciful, therefore I can be brave.儉故能廣。Because I am frugal, therefore I can be generous.不敢爲天下先,故能成器長。Because I dare not be first, therefore I can be the chief of all vessels.今舍慈且勇。If a man wants to be brave without first being merciful,舍儉且廣,generous without first being frugal,舍後且先,a leader without first wishing to follow,死矣。he is only courting death!夫慈以戰則勝,Mercy alone can help you to win a war.以守則固。Mercy alone can helpyou to defend your state.天將救之,以慈衛之。For Heaven will come to the rescue of the merciful, and protect him with its Mercy.

{原文}

天下皆謂我道大,似不肖。夫唯大,故似不肖。若肖,久矣其細也夫!我有三寶,持而保之:一曰慈;二曰儉;三曰不敢爲天下先。慈,故能勇;儉,故能廣;不敢爲天下先,故能成器長。今舍其慈,且勇;舍其儉,且廣;舍其後爲,且先,死矣。

夫慈,以戰則勝,以守則固。天將救之,以慈衛之。

[譯文]

天下人都說我所說的道太過普泛了,很難加以具體把握。要知道,正因爲它是普泛的行爲規範,所以才不象具體旅途的具體準則;如果針對具體旅途作具體論述,它早就瑣碎不堪了。我有三條基本的行爲原則,把持它以保證大道得以貫徹執行:第一是柔慈;第二是儉約;第三是不與天下爭得利之先。保持柔慈,就能全力以赴;保持儉約,就能行走于廣闊的天地;不與天下爭得利之先,就能成爲群體的首領。如果捨弃柔慈而妄逞勇武,捨弃儉約而行廣,捨弃謙讓而爭先,那就死定了。保持柔慈,投入戰爭就能取得勝利,用于防守就能鞏固。對于慈者,整個自然環境都會救助他,因爲慈在守護著他。

 

 

68不爭章第六十八Formidable Warrior

善爲士者不武。A good soldier is never aggressive善戰者不怒。A good fighter is never angry.善勝敵者不與。The best way of conquering an enemy Is to win him over by not antagonizing him.善用人者爲之下。The best way of employing a man

Is to serve under him.是謂不爭之德。This is called the virtue of non-striving!是謂用人之力。This is called using the abilities of men!是謂配天古之極。This is called being wedded to Heaven as of old!

{原文}

善爲士者,不武;善戰者,不怒;善勝敵者,不與;善用人者,爲之下。是謂不爭之德,是謂用人之力,是謂配天古之極。

[譯文]

善于帶兵打仗的將帥,不逞其勇武;善于打仗的人,不輕易激怒;善于勝敵的人,不與敵人正面衝突;善于用人的人,對人表示謙下。這叫做不與人爭的品德,這叫做運用別人的能力,這叫做符合自然的道理。

 

69用兵章第六十九The Strategy of Inferiorityness

用兵有言The strategists have a saying「吾不敢爲主而爲客I dare not be a host, but rather a guest不敢進寸而退尺。I dare not advance an inchbut rather retreat a foot.」是謂行無行,This is called marching without moving,欉無臂,Rolling up one's sleeves without baring one's arms,扔無敵,Capturing the enemy without confronting him,執無兵。Holding a weapon that is invisible.禍莫大于輕敵,There is no greater calamity than to under-strength of your enemy.輕敵幾喪吾寶。For to under-estimate the strength of your enemy is to lose your treasure.故杭兵相加哀者勝矣。Therefore, when opposing troops meet in battle, victory belongs to the grieving side.

{原文}

用兵有言:吾不敢爲主而爲客,不敢進寸而退尺。

是謂行無行,攘無臂,執無兵,乃無敵。禍莫大于輕敵,輕敵幾喪吾寶。故抗兵相加,哀者勝矣。

[譯文]

統帥武裝力量的人總是說:武裝力量只是某一主體的客屬,我不敢反客爲主,不敢讓它前行示人,而要讓它收縮而置後。這就叫做行動無陣勢可把捉,使人明白我在揮舞著的不是用于擊人的手臂,拿著的也不是用于傷人的武器,于是就不會促成緊張對峙而樹敵了。禍患莫大于輕侮敵人,輕侮敵人就差不多喪盡了我所說的"三寶"。所以,等到真正以武力相對抗的時候,首先寬容忍讓,最後才不得已而奮起的一方通常會取勝。

 

70悲世章第七十Have mercy on the World-wide-Dyslexia

吾言甚易知My words arc very easy to understand,甚易行。and very easy to practise天下莫能知莫能行。But the world cannot understand them, nor practise them. 言有宗事有君。My words have an Ancestor. My deeds have a Lord.夫唯無知,The people have no knowledge of this.是以不我知Therefore, they have no knowledge of me. 知我者希,The fewer persons know me,則我者貴。The nobler are they that follow me.是以聖人被褐懷玉。Therefore, the Sage wears coarse clothes, While keeping the jade in nis bosom.

{原文}

吾言甚易知,甚易行。天下莫能知,莫能行。言有宗,事有君。夫唯無知,是以不我知。知我者希,則我者貴。是以聖人,被褐懷玉。

[譯文]

我的話很容易知曉,很容易踐行。而天下却不能知曉,不願意踐行。言所指向自有出處,事所提及必有主人。唯有放下後天知見,才能不斷知曉我們的感知。知道我們的人稀少,才顯出我們的可貴。所以聖人,外表淳樸而內心如玉。

 

71不病章第七十一Epistemology

知不知To realize that our knowledge is ignorance,上。This is a noble insight.不知知To regard our ignorance as knowledge,病。This is mental sickness.夫唯病病Only when we are sick of our sickness是以不病。Shall we cease to be sick.聖人不病。The Sage is not sick,以其病病,being sick of sickness是以不病。This is the secret of health.

{原文}

知不知,尚矣;不知知,病也。聖人不病,以其病病。夫唯病病,是以不病。

[譯文]

知道自己還有所不知,這是很高明的。不知道却自以爲知道,這就是很糟糕的。有道的聖人沒有缺點,因爲他把缺點當作缺點。正因爲他把缺點當作缺點,所以,他沒有缺點。

 

72畏威章第七十二The Intimidation Effect

民不畏威,When the people no longer fear your power’則大威至。It is a sign that a greater power is coming.無狎其所居。Interfere not lightly with their dwelling,無厭其所生。Nor lay heavy burdens upon their livelihood.夫唯不厭,Only when you cease to weary them,是以不厭。They will cease to be wearied of you.是以聖人自知不自見,Therefore, the Sage knows himself, But makes no show of himself;自愛不自貴。Loves nimself, But does not exalt himself.

故去彼取此。He prefers what is within to what is without.

{原文}

民不畏威,則大威至。無狎其所居,無厭其所生。夫唯不厭,是以不厭。是以聖人自知不自見,自愛不自貴。故去彼取此。

[譯文]

當人民不畏懼統治者的威壓時,那麽,可怕的禍亂就要到來了。不要逼迫人民不得安居,不要阻塞人民謀生的道路。只有不壓迫人民,人民才不厭惡統治者。因此,有道的聖人不但有自知之明,而且也不自我表現;有自愛之心也不自顯高貴。所以要捨弃後者(自見、自貴)而保持前者(自知、自愛)。

 

73天網章第七十三Within the Tenet

勇於敢則殺,He who is brave in daring will be killed:勇於不敢則活。He who is brave in not daring will survive.此兩者,或利或害。Of these two kinds of bravery, one is beneficial while the other proves harmful.天之所惡,Some things are detested by Heaven孰知其故?But who knows the reason是以聖人猶難之。Even the Sage is baffled by such a question.天之道不爭而善勝,It is Heaven's Way to conquer without striving,不言而善應,To get responses without speaking,不召而自來,To induce the people to come without summoning, 然而善謀。To act according to plans without haste.天網恢恢,Vast is Heaven's net疏而不失。Sparse-meshed it is, and yet Nothing can slip through it.

{原文}

勇于敢則殺,勇于不敢則活。此兩者,或利或害。天之所惡,孰知其故?是以聖人猶難之。天之道,不爭而善勝,不應而善應,不召而自來,繟然而善謀。天網恢恢,疏而不失。

[譯文]

勇于堅强就會死,勇于柔弱就可以活,這兩種勇的結果,有的得利,有的受害。天所厭惡的,誰知道是什麽緣故?有道的聖人也難以解說明白。自然的規律是,不鬥爭而善于取勝;不言語而善于應承;不召喚而自動到來,坦然而善于安排籌劃。自然的範圍,寬廣無邊,雖然寬疏但幷不漏失。

 

74大匠章第七十四 Kill and be Killed; Folly cost Dearly.

民不畏死,When the people are no longer afraid of death,奈何以死懼之?Why scare them with the spectre of death?若使民常畏死,If you could make the people always afraid of death,而為奇者,And they still persisted in breaking the law吾得執而殺之,Then you might with reason arrest and execute them,孰敢?And who would dare to break the law?常有司殺者殺。Is not the Great executor always there to kill?夫代司殺者殺,To do the killing for the Great Executor是謂代大匠斫。Is to chop wood for a master carpenter,夫代大匠斫者,And those who chop for the Great Executor希有不傷其手矣! Seldom would be lucky indeed if they did not hurt their own hand!

{原文}

民不畏死,奈何以死懼之。若使為民常畏死,而為奇者,吾得執而殺之,孰敢?常有司殺者殺。夫代司殺者殺,是謂代大匠斫,希有不傷其手者矣。

[譯文]

人民不畏懼死亡,爲什麽用死來嚇唬他們呢?假如人民真的畏懼死亡的話,對于爲非作歹的人,我們就把他抓來殺掉。誰還敢爲非作歹?經常有專管殺人的人去執行殺人的任務,代替專管殺人的人去殺人,就如同代替高明的木匠去砍木頭,那代替高明的木匠砍木頭的人,很少有不砍傷自己手指頭的。

 

 

75貴生章第七十五Poverty is there to create the Rich.

民之譏,Why are the people starving?以其上食稅之多,Because those above them are taxing them too heavily.是以譏。That is why they are starving.民之難治,Why are the people hard to manage?以其上之有為,Because those above them are fussy and have private ends to serve.是以難治。That is why they are hard to manage.民之輕死,Why do the people make light of death?以其上求生之厚,Because those above them make too much of life.是以輕死。That is why they make light of death.夫唯無以生為者,The people have simply nothing to live upon!是賢於貴生。They know better than to value such a life!

{原文}

民之饑,以其上食稅之多,是以饑。民之難治,以其上之有為,是以難治。民之輕死,以其上求生之厚,是以輕死。夫唯無以生為者,是賢于貴生。

[譯文]

人民所以遭受饑荒,就是由于統治者吞吃賦稅太多,所以人民才陷于饑餓。人民之所以難于統治,是由于統治者政令繁苛、喜歡有所作爲,所以人民就難于統治。人民之所以輕生冒死,是由于統治者爲了奉養自己,把民脂民膏都搜刮淨了,所以人民覺得死了不算什麽。只有不去追求生活享受的人,才比過分看重自己生命的人高明。

 

76柔弱章第七十六 Tender lasts longer, Weaker stays Stronger

人之生也VVnen a man is living柔弱。he is soft and supple.其死也,堅強。When he is dead, he becomes hard and rigid.萬物草木之生也,When a plant is living,柔脆。it is soft and tender.其死也When it is dead,枯槁。it becomes withered and dry.故堅強者,死之徒。Hence, the hard and rigid belongs to the company of the dead:柔弱者,生之徒。The soft and supple belongs to the company of the living.是以兵強則不勝,Therefore, a mighty army tends to fall by its own weight,木強則兵。Just as dry wood is ready for the axe.強大處下,The mighty and great will be laid low:柔弱處上。The humble and weak will be exalted.

{原文}

人之生也柔弱,其死也堅強。草木之生也柔脆,其死也枯槁。故堅強者死之徒,柔弱者生之徒。是以兵強則滅,木強則折。強大處下,柔弱處上。

[譯文]

人活著的時候身體是柔軟的,死了以後身體就變得僵硬。草木生長時是柔軟脆弱的,死了以後就變得幹硬枯槁了。所以堅强的東西屬于死亡的一類,柔弱的東西屬于生長的一類。因此,用兵逞强就會遭到滅亡,樹木强大了就會遭到砍伐摧折。凡是强大的,總是處于下位,凡是柔弱的,反而居于上位。

 

 

77張弓章第七十七 The Law of Equilibrium

天之道,Perhaps the Way of Heaven其猶張弓與。may be likened to the stretching of a composite bow!高者抑之,下者舉之。The upper part is depressed, while the lower is raised.有狳者損之,If the bow-string is too longit is cut short:不足者補之。if too shortit is added to.天之道,損有狳而補不足The Way of Heaven diminishes the more-than-enough

 to supply the less-than-enough.。人之道,則不然;The way of man is different:損不足以奉有狳。it takes from the less-than-enough to swell the more-than-enough.孰能有餘以奉天下?Who except a man of the Tao can put his superabundant riches to the service of the world?唯有道者是以聖人為而不恃,Therefore, the Sage does his work without setting any store by it,功成而不處。accomplishes his task without dwelling upon it.其不欲見賢。He does not want his merits to be seen.

{原文}

天之道,其猶張弓與?高者抑下,下者舉之,有餘者損之,不足者補之。天之道,損有餘而補不足。人之道,則不然,損不足以奉有餘。孰能有餘以奉天下,唯有道者。是以聖人為而不恃,功成而不處,其不欲見賢。

[譯文]

自然的規律,不是很像張弓射箭嗎?弦拉高了就把它壓低一些,低了就把它舉高一些,拉得過滿了就把它放鬆一些,拉得不足了就把它補充一些。自然的規律,是减少有餘的補給不足的。可是社會的法則却不是這樣,要减少不足的,來奉獻給有餘的人。那麽,誰能够减少有餘的,以補給天下人的不足呢?只有有道的人才可以做到。因此,有道的聖人這才有所作爲而不占有,有所成就而不居功。他是不願意顯示自己的賢能。

 

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