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中國傳統文化:禮記(上)  

2015-09-01 21:26:12|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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碼德筆記【中國傳統文化:禮記()】禮記簡介

“禮”

乃中國古籍十三經典之一。現存禮記亦稱小戴記。漢戴德集纂,戴聖删編。乃叔侄關係。

The Book of Rites one of the Thirteen Classics in the Ancient period of China The Li-ji we know today was compiled by scholars in the Han Dynesty

 

古代社會的“禮”是中國的先民在“天人合一”背景下,通過取法自然而制定的,幷以此獲得了形而上的依據。“禮”,是中國文化的象徵與標志。 中國的禮儀文化自黃帝營始、周公完成,孔子承前啟後,作為中國人的靈魂主宰,已經綿延了數千年。歷史上,它曾是中國人“修身、齊家、治國、平天下”的知識淵藪,而時至今日以及可以預期的未來,‘‘禮”的精神仍是 中國人處理人與人、國與國、民族與民族、宗教與宗教之間關係時不可或缺 的圭桌。

就一個民族而言,沒有一個眾望所歸的信念與原則是不可想像的,數千年來,恰恰是“禮”為中國人提供了具有普遍義義的價值觀、倫理觀、道德觀和人生觀,它賦予了人們藝術化的語言,儀式化的舉止,和諧融洽的環境,以及自信恢弘的氣度。

對個人而言,“禮”則為人們提供了一條提升個人尊嚴,實現自我價值,讓一生過得從容,使心靈找到家園的蹊徑通衢。

Guided by the idea that man is an integral part of nature"the forefathers of the Chinese people created the rite of ancient China by following the rules governing heaven and earth。 “Rite has become the symbol of Chinese culture ever since In Chinariteas a cultural form,,was started by Huang Di and completed by Lord Zhou Confucius was a key figure who carried forward the rich heritage of rite and contributed to it many new ideas Rite has existed for more than several thousand yearsserving as the governing force of the souls of the Chinese people It gave rise to the Confucian proverb "cultivate yourselfput your family in orderrun the local government welland bring peace to the entire country" Even todayand in the foreseeable futurethe spirit of the rite will remain an indispensable criterion for the Chinese people as they handle the relations between different peopledifferent countriesdifferent racesand different religions It is inconceivable for a nation not to have a faith or principle with widespread supportOver the past several thousand yearsrite has provided the Chinese with valuesethics,,morals and a world outlook in general It gives us an artistic languageceremonious bearingharmonious environmentand a confident and noble manner

For individualsrite provided the path on which one could enhance one's self-esteemrealize one's valueslead a peaceful life and find a home for one's heart

古代社會的禮,是我們的祖先為維護"天人合一”這一生態理念而制定的。正是賴于這一以和諧為最高宗旨的理念禮才可以由道德層面得到提升,進而逾越宗教,使我們這個幅員遼闊、人口眾多的國家得以維繫其間,繁衍生息,并創造出了博大精深的中華傳統道德與文化。In ancient China our forefathers created rite to safeguard the ecological idea that "man is an integral part of nature" Because this theory considers harmony to be its highest purposerite is therefore elevated from the level of morals to surpass religion and become a binding force of our vast and populous country With itpeople lived and developedand created an extensive Chinese culture with profound traditional morals

“禮”,作為人類社會發展的產物和文明的標志,在很早以前就產生了,經過不斷完善,至周代從內容到形式已經形成了一整套完備的體系。中國素稱“禮儀之邦”,其基礎就是由那時候奠定的。Rite came into existence very early as a product of the social development of mankind and as a symbol of civilization After continuous improvementsit had formed a complete system in both form and content by the Zhou Dynasty some 3000years agoChina has been known as a "state of rites"and its foundations were laid at that time

說到禮,就必須從儒學談起,儒學是孔子在二千五百多年前創立的。人們通常所講的中國傳統文化,就是指作為主流文化的儒學。論語第十六偏第十三章:<孔子庭訓>曰…不學禮無以立

It is difncult to discuss rites without reference to Confucianism as thev were created by Confucius more than 2500 years agoTraditional Chinese cultureas it is considered todayrefers to Confucianism that had been the main-stream culture in ancient ChinaThe Analect of Confucius Chapter 16 versus 13 quote :If one does not study the rules of propriety(Li-ji) there is nowhere acceptable for one to stand in the society。”

這一思想體系的標志就是本則筆記所要重溫“禮記”的“禮”。 i"he symbol of this ideological system is riteswhich we are going to review in this transcript

儒家的核心思想是充滿同情和友愛、以及深切的人們關懷的“仁”,即所謂“仁者愛人”;表現形式就是“禮”。The fundamental principle of Confucianism is benevolence,” which includes sympathybrotherhood and humanitarian concernThe benevolent love peopleand the form of expression of this benevolence is the rites

請注意,不通過“禮”,仁也就無從體現。It is important to note that benevolence could not be achieved without adherence to the rites

以“禮”為爲標志的儒家倫理道德觀念對人們的意識形態影晌尤其巨大,正是它將我們這個幅員遼闊、人口眾多的國家凝聚為一體,形成一個聞名于世的禮儀之邦。TTie Confucian ethics and morals with the rites as its symbol have great influence on people's ideology Throughout historythe consensus of the rules of propriety have united Chinamaking it a land of rites well-known all over the world

中國有禮義之大,故稱夏;有服章之美,謂之華。作為傳統文化的元素,“禮”為整個中華民族構築了獨具特色的價值體系,為我們提供了行為與思維的準則。China is sometimes referred to as Xia because of its rites; it is also referred to as Hua because of its fine clothing and beautiful jade designs As the foremost element of traditional culturerites formed a distinctive system of values for the Chinese nation and provided norms for our actions and thoughts

一方面,它對社會具有協調和穩定的重要作用。On the one handrites play the important role of coordinating and stabilizing society

君止于仁,Monarchs were supposed to be benevolent

臣止于敬,Officials were required to be respectful

父止于慈,子止于孝。A father was supposed to be merciful and loving while a son was supposed to be filial

人與人之間止于信。 。 People were expected to be trustworthy

言必信,行必果。To keep wordsand therefore resolute in deeds

即“禮”對人是一種約束。 Rites were a restriction to people

另一方面,“禮”又是達到“仁”這一理想和境界的載體,即人格提升和完善的必要途徑。而人格完善則是儒家的畢生追求,即終極目的。On the other handrites were the medium through which one attained the ideal and the superior realm of ‘‘ benevolence,,In other wordsit is the path one has to travel if he wants to build and improve his character For Confucianiststhe improvement of one's character is a lifelong pursuit and an ultimate goal

這個終極目的不是禁欲中的彼岸,也不是苦海裏的涅槃,而是對自我本性的回歸,對自然法則的皈依。是人與人、與物、與自然之間無可名狀的和諧與融洽。The ultimate objective is not the other shore to be reached when practicing asceticism Nor is it a nirvana in the void of misery Ratherit is a return to one's very nature and a regression to the natural laws It is the inexplicable harmony between one person and anotherbetween man and animalsbetween man and nature

所以“仁”又不僅指同情和友愛,還同時被賦予 了心靈歸宿的終極內含。Besides the implication or sympathy and brotherhoodbenevolence also has the attribute of being the ultimate sanctuary of the mind

就一個民族而言,沒有一個眾望所歸的信念與原則是難以想象的,數千年來,恰恰是“禮”為我們提供了具有普遍意義的價值觀、倫理觀、道德觀、人生觀。它曾賦予了我們藝術化的語言,儀式化的舉止,和諧融洽的環境,以及自信恢弘的氣度。It is inconceivable for a nation not to have a faith or principle with widespread support Over the past several thousand yearsrites have provided us with valuesethicsmorals and a world outlook in general They give us an artistic languageceremonious bearingharmonious environmentand a confident and noble manner

對個人來說,“禮”則為人們設計了一條提升個人尊嚴,實現自我價值,讓一生過得從容,使心靈找到家園的蹊徑通衢。For individualsrites provided the path on which one could enhance one's self-esteemrealize one's valueslead a peaceful life and find a home for one's heart

按“禮”的精神去生活,依自然的 法則來做事,就隨時可以步入這 一境界。Lead your life in the spirit of rites and do things in accordance with natural lawsand you will enter this realm with ease

《禮記》中為“禮”下定義的地方很多,但最重要的一個原則是取法天地,效仿自然。 There are many parts in The Book of Rites that give definitions to rites Yet the most important principle is to follow the examples of heaven and earth and imitate nature

然後將人的行為、思維,乃至上層建築的所有 領域都自覺地納入其中。這一點與“天人合一” 的世界觀是一致的。Vith itman s actionsthinking and all realms of the superstructure will be automatically included In this regard it is in conformity with the world outlook that man is an integral part of nature。,’

<<河圖洛書>>就是對宇宙功能的總體把握, 對自然譜系的實錄,是中華文明的統一場。 The River Diagram and the Luo scripture were about how to have a general command of the functions of the universeIt is a factual record of the natures system of change and development It is the coherence of Chinese civilization

所以“禮”又是不與人的本性相悖離的,因為“禮也者,理也”。在儒家的學說中,“禮”的本質是可以用數學語言來描述的,因而就原理而言,“禮”中不包含有超自然的因素。lerefore rite is not contrary to human naturesince it is a system based on rational knowledge According to Confucian theoriesthe nature of rite can be described by using numerical language So as far as the tenet is concernedrite does not ntain supernatural elements

正是賴于“天人合一”世界觀的指導,“禮”才可以從道德這一層面得到提升,進而兼具宗教的統攝功能。 Because of the guiding principle of the world outlook that ‘‘man is an integral part of nature,” rite is elevated from the level of morality to have the additional commanding function of religion

這是由于道德常常是乏味的、缺乏約束力的。 This is because morality is often boring and in lack of binding force

而對自然的敬畏和伺身本性的感悟則會 使人自覺地克勤克儉,無出其外。 The fear of nature and the awareness of one's innate self will make one work hard and live a prudent life without going beyond the limits

以自然立約,鑄人生法度。 Following nature to set out the moral standards of life

因而在以宗教作為靈魂主宰的世界各民族當中,唯獨中華民族選擇了 “禮”,這一充滿理性精神、體現自然法則的機杼,用以維繫天地之間。Almost all nationalities in the world use religion as the governing force of people's soulsbut the Chinese people have chosen rite a concept full of rational spirit and reflecting the laws of nature — as the union of everything between heaven and earth   

由此可見,作為涵蓋面更廣的固有文化,《禮記》中的“禮”和我們現在通常所講的禮貌、禮節等含義是不盡相同的。如 果以此來衡量周代的“禮”,就會有許多問題找不到答案。We can see that as part or an indigenous culture that covers a much wider rangerite as described in The Book of Rites is not quite the same thing as manners or etiquette that we refer to today If we used today's definition of li (rite) to judge the rite of the Zhou Dynastywe would be unable to come up with answers to many questions

而這恰恰可以使我們追溯今日的許多社會現象,乃至整個民族的心路歷程,甚至影響到我們對未來生活的判斷。 By studying The Book of Rites we can observe many social phenomena of today and trace the course of development of our nation It will also influence our judgment on our lives in the future。。

 

同時,它所形成的眾多典故為我們提供了豐富的常識 與知識,可以用來提高我們的文化素養。 In additionmany of the literary allusions from this book provide information about a wide range of thingsadding to our cultural attainment

而其所彙集的許多對自然與社會的真知灼見,則更是對民族 自信心的回歸與重塑大有助益。MoreoverThe Book of Rites contains many deep insights into nature and societywhich will help the Chinese people regain and rebuild their confidence as a nation

兩千多年來,中國的仁人志士無不以此作爲“修身、齊家、治國、平天下”的思想知識淵藪,它所代表的價值標準和 思想觀念,早已滲透到社會的各個階層和角落,溶進了民族的血液之中。歷史上,特別是近代以來,儘管人們對其褒 貶有加,但它對于國家的凝聚、民族的復興、人格的完善而言,還是無可替代的,認識到這一點,就可以發掘《禮記》這一文化寶藏了。For more than 2000 years in Chinapublic-spirited people who follow the Confucian proverb ‘‘cultivate yourselfput your family in orderrun the local government welland bring peace to the entire country,,all considered The Book of Rites the source of ideas and knowledge The values and ideology it represents have permeated all social stratums and have been ingrainED into the minds of the nation Although historically people have had different opinions about the value of the book — especially in modern history when some people expressed negative opinions about the book — it is still irreplaceable in terms of the unity of the countryrejuvenation of the nation and improvement of one's character With this in mindwe can begin to examine The Book of Ritesthe cultural treasure of ancient China

下篇加碼德筆記【中國傳統文化:禮記()】禮記之曲禮(摘抄)

http://gammaducksr.blog.163.com/blog/static/9973277320158185734547/#

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